Training and Development of Human Resources. A Critical Factor in Banking Operations

Training and Development of Human Resources. A Critical Factor in Banking Operations (A Case Study of First Bank of Nigeria Plc.) Enugu Main Branch

Literature Review

  • Introduction

Training and development involves increasing skill for the performance of a specific job and education to increase general knowledge and understanding of environments. Due to the widely different nature of operative and managerial jobs, it is usually not easy to describe the process of increasing operatives’ skills as training, and to reserve the term development for the process of enhancing managerial abilities. It is usually to speak of operative training and management development.

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Operative work tends to be highly structured and routinized, while managerial functions are more complex, open-ended, inter-personal and verbal. The skills required for operative works are often acquire through on the job training whereas managerial abilities require more formal education. Training is the systematic development of the knowledge skills and attitude required by an individual to perform adequately a given job.

According Armstrong (1972) Training and development has its goal of individual achievement of greater job effectiveness, improved inter-personal relationship in the organization, the better adjustment of an executive to the total environment. Thus, the immediate goals of training are to improve individual job effectiveness and the climate of inter-personal relations.

Training and development is one of he aspects in personal management in an organization. The efficiency of an organization depends on how well its staff is trained. Training motivates workers to work hard, and employees who know these jobs are likely to have higher morale.

According to Kodntz et al (1983) executives have the responsibility to provide training and development opportunities for their staff so that they can reach their full potentials

Training and development is a modern management to which an organization cannot afford to do without it. It has to do more with social economic and technological changes the world is facing today. It is an utmost necessary that a system of training and education has to be developed to achieve the ever-demanding task of present and future challenges.

Training is designed to:

  1. Increase productivity
  2. Improve the quality of work and raise morale
  3. Development and skills, knowledge, understanding and attitude
  4. Use correct tools machines, processed method of modification there of.
  5. Reduce waste, accident turnover the other over-based costs.
  6. Fight obsolesces in skill, technological method, products, and market capital management.
  7. Bring incumbents to the appropriate level of performance for the job.
  8. Development replacements, prepare people for advancement, improve manpower development and ensure continuity of leadership.
  9. Ensure the survival and growth of the organization.

From the above objectives, it is imperative that employees should be trained, as they may not have had any previous or sufficient experience to face task required in their jobs.  A well-developed worker is a confident worker and an asset to his employer.

The need for training in any organization cannot therefore be over emphasized. Employees, who have not received adequate training before assigned responsibilities, lack the necessary confidant with which to carry out job. An employee should be encouraged to be able to cope with duties assigned to him systematically on training and development. It is by so doing that he will be confident in himself, and the job. Training should not be seen as the final stage to the worker’s poor performance.

Training has two fold functions:

  1. To overcome deficiencies in individuals that cannot be self remedied or mastered on the job, even with the help of the supervisions.
  2. To develop the potentialities of up- and –coming employees.
    • WHAT IS TRAINING

Training is the preparation for a particular job. It is concerned with job performance and the application of knowledge and skills to present work. It is also concerned with meeting between two inputs or organizational effectiveness, people, and technology. Since organizations can rarely secure people who do things the right way, training also enable an individual to contribute his utmost to the organization of which he is a member.

Sound training course is good as it may be gained from being supported by other personnel practices like merit rating, internal staff promotion plan, regular safety and quality compositions and suggestion schemes, all encourage employees to have a greater sense of participation in the everyday affairs of the organization. Training is needed when a person is newly hired without the requisite skills, attitude, knowledge or after being on the job, performing deficiencies were identified which were amiable to training. On the other hand, an employee may be performing very well, but a change in procedures, materials or processes will stimulate a need for training.

  • IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME.

Training and development must be planned otherwise, it will accomplish itself by default, following its own dynamics. When training and development accomplishes itself by default, it leads to higher cost to the organization than if it was planned.

For instance, if there is no plan for training and development programmes, self development and training will accomplish itself on the job with attendant errors, which usually lead to, unanticipated loses in production. A planned and systematic training and development programme has the following advantages among others:

  1. Increased productivity: Ana increased in skill and ability usually results in increase in both quality and quantity of output.
  2. Higher Morale: Possession of needed skill and knowledge increase confidences, ego, satisfaction and leads to reduce supervision and greater independence. All these enhance workers morale.
  3. Reduced Cost: An increase in skill and knowledge helps to reduce accidents, spoilage etc, all leading to lower operation.
  4. Increase organizational stability and flexibility: Stability is the ability of an organization to sustain its effectiveness, despite the loss of key personnel. This is achieved through having a reservoir of trained replacement. Flexibility or the ability to adjust to short run variation in the volume of work requires personnel with multiple skills that make it possible for them to be moved to jobs where the demand is highest.
  5. Career Enhancement: Training and development programmes most the needs of individuals for meaningful life long careers.
    • PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING

Training and development can be more effective by basing them on a number of principles of learning which have evolved from research (Onyenadum 1991).

  1. Motivation: – The more highly motivate a trainee is, the more quickly and thoroughly he is likely to learn a new skill, or knowledge. One principle to make training intrincal is by active participation of the trainee.
  2. Progress Report (Feedback): –specific and a reasonable amount of progress information quickens and enhances learning. But care must be taken to avoid too much information or information or information likely to be misunderstood.
  3. Reinforcement: – This is based on the theory that action rewarded positively are more likely to be repeated than actions that are not rewarded or those that are punished (negative reinforcement) Every organization must be forth coming to the successful trainee.
  4. Practice and Repetition: – Opportunities for practice must be provided because carefully spaced practice periods are essential for effective learning, the greater opportunity to repeat or practice something we learn, the better it is learnt. With practice, individuals may become more familiar with what they are supposed to do.
  5. Meaningfulness of Training: – There are at least three ways that the organization and presentation of the materials are important. Firstly, the materials must be meaningful in the sense that it is understandable and interpretable by those participating in the training. There are certain techniques available to trainers. E.g. organizing meaningful units, creating association with familiar terms and providing a conceptual basis or logical reason for the materials.
  6. Transfer of Training: – Clearly, the purpose of training to employees is to prepare them for some positions in the organization. One important aspect of training programme, therefore if the degree to which the materials to be learnt can be transferred to the job. One of the strategies for obtaining transferability is to make training situation similar to the actual terms of the physical characteristics of the situation.
  7. Individual Differences: Pace and complexity of the training process must be adjusted to individual differences, even under group training programme should be designed to accommodate both the slow and fast learners.
    • UNDERSTANDING TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT NEEDS
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To produce the desired changes, one must be familiar with needs of the organization- the kind of changes possible, and the ways in which one brings about these programmes. These preliminary topics will be discussed before turning to a description an evaluation of various programmes.

DISCOVERING TRAINING NEEDS

Training needs identification attempts to establish who has to achieve the needs. Before and organization chooses a training programme for any of its employees, there are some preliminary questions which should be asked. A thorough analysis of the organization, the job involved the employees affected should be connected in order to discover what is needed in the way of training.

These are discussed below:

  1. Organizational goals: A general consideration of both the long and short-term goal of the organization is important for development a broad perspective of ones training philosophy. How will both the social and physical environment be related to the growth? If the organization wishes to like minority group members living in the neighbourhood, this may affect the selection of a training programme for perhaps, management wants to emphases on the relationship between the organization and physical environment.
  2. Job analysis: In the consideration of training programmes, management must also keep in mind that job for which people are being training. An analysis of the job requires knowledge of the kinds of skills, attitudes, behaviour and personality characteristic that are most effective for those position. The data would spell out rather clearly the tasks that constitute the job. It should be pointed out that in some cases, this might be a different task because of the flexible nature of managerial positions. We know that different kinds of situations require different types of people with different attitudes, behaviours and skills.

There are three possible consequences of training:

Greater effectiveness, no change, and, less effectiveness. Since two of these are costly, it pays for the organization to know what is needed.

  1. Work force analysis: The final assessment of the functioning of the organization involves the employees currently filling the positions of interest. Some attempts should be made to find out if performance in substandard were begin with. It may be true that the problems with performance are due to no-trainable factors. More specifically, technological or mechanical change may be needed, not changes in the employees. It would also be important to determine if the employees currently in the position are capable of improvement through training, or what are the new personnel is needed. In conclusion, a thorough look at the goals, jobs and job occupants are needed before dealing what, and how to train.

KINDS OF CHANGES INDUCED BY TRAINING

Training is aimed at transmitting information, development attitudes, and improving skills. Another facet or training representing a fairly shift in emphasis, is the marked interest in the development of managerial conceptual abilities. Each of these training facets is discussed separately, but it should be recognized that there is a consideration of overlap among them

  1. Transmitting information: – The essential element in most training programme is content. The purpose of training is to impact to the trainees’ information drawn from a body of knowledge. Training is the behavioural sciences, personality and motivation the process of communication, organizational theory, leadership. Etc.
  2. Development of attitude: – Closely links to the imparting of knowledge is the development of attitudes. Actually. It is more accurate to say changing the attitudes of the participants. People go into training programme with certain reconceived ideas about leadership, the function of status and the informal organization. The attitude management trainees have regarding these factors and others in the organizational environments determine executive effectiveness of the leaders.
  3. Development of skills: – Assuming that in a given training programme, a considerable amount of information has been transmitted to participants, and that in the process of training, their attitudes have been changed. In other words, the first two aspects of training will be accomplished well. Is the programme a success? The answer probably is (no) because the trainees have not yet had an opportunities to develop “human skills” in the application of the material to them. Consequently, the next topic phase of training is skill development.

Some argue that the development skills in the use of human tools derived from training must come form on-the –job experience. Classroom situation of human problems through case studies and roles playing, it is claimed, it is adequate even when conducted under the supervision of a training expert. Nevertheless, those in the training field are constantly working on new device and techniques, which endeavour to fill the need of realistic forms of classroom experiences where skills can be developed.

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REASONS FOR TRAINING

  1. Newly employed persons need to become acquainted with the organizational’s goals, policies, structures, product or services etc. This information can be disseminated economically and informally, via group sections. The training development is one unit best equipped to give such instructions.
  2. A newly policy is to be implemented. Supervisors and others whose work will be influenced by the policy brought together. The people who structured the policy explained the needs, answers questions and get the feedback.
  3. A new procedure, a new record form, or a new machine (or a modification of present usage) is being introduced.
  4. A realization that productivity is inadequate.
  5. Labour shortage, necessitating the upgrading of some employees.
  6. A desire to reduce the amount of scrap and to improve quality.
  7. An increase in the number of accidents.
    • On- The – Job Training

One of the most common procedures over the years has been to train a person while on the job. A practical reason for this approach is that the individual is producing while being trained. No special place or equipment needs to be used. These are however; some shortcomings associated with the approaches. A component trainer or coach must be proved from within the organization. If the trainee must work at reduced pace, then certain equipment of facilities may be tied up. The trainee must experience some of the stress and pressure on the job, while trying to learn. In short, the use of on-the-job method should be carefully evaluated in terms of needs cost and effectiveness.

Discussed Below Are Some Types of On-The-Job Training:

  1. Job Instruction: Most firms have some means of introducing the employees to the work environment. Traditional programme would be included in a general survey of the firm, personal introduction to people with the training will work and some instruction about the job.
  2. Coaching: In this type of training programme, the trainee may have one person called Tutor or big brother in the organization. The coach will attempt to help the trainee by providing feedback, setting goals and discussing used for position at many different levels within the organization.
  3. Job Rotation: When the trainee is required in a number of assignments before assuming a permanent position, he or she is involved in a job- rotation programme. In large organizations, the trainee may become familiar with the existing dimension of the departments. The programme may provide not only skill, but also allow work at different levels within the organization. This variety of experience is designed to give the trainee an overall view of the organization and inter-relationship of it parts.
  4. Junior Boards: A shorter and less involved strategy than job rotation is to assign the trainee to a committee of Junior Board which deals with programme, concerning the whole organization. In this way, the trainee is able to learn information about the different departments, or sub-units of the organization and how they operate.
  5. In summary, most on –the –job techniques have the advantages of being similar to what the trainee will actually be doing (Transfer of training), and they allow the organization to obtain some benefits from the trainee who is working while being trained. The degree to which the materials are effectively organized and feedback proved are generally, matters, which require attention, as does the motivation of the trainee.
    • Evaluation Of Training And Development

Training and development must be systematically evaluated to answer that the effort has been worthwhile. Evaluation must be usual or based on faith; thus, the fact that the participants responded enthusiastically should not be taken to mean that the effort has been worthwhile. There must be more factual evidence. Some concrete bases of reevaluating training include productivity, accident, rate, absenteeism and rates of labour turnover.

For executive development programme, the broad goals under which the techniques were examined can be used as a starting point for evaluation. This one can measure such factors as a witness to decide and leadership style etc.

There are various method of evaluation that should be discussed.  First, one must choose measure that reflects the changes may range from a multiple-choice test of information to detail observations of behaviour on the job. Interview performance, rating or attitudes questionnaires are frequent choice as well. This is the least effective because management is conducted only after the training has been completed. In most programmes, the opinions obtained from trainees at the work of the experience are almost favourable.

A second approach is that of measuring the group before and after the training. Comparison can be made to determine of organization behaviour has improved within the group.

A still better method is measuring the group both before and after training, and applying an identical management process to a control group that has been carefully selected as equivalent to the trained group in all things, except the training experience.

Finally, an even more effective method is to use “post-post” research design by adding an additional measure after training. This is because some development programme tends to have delayed action effects.

FINDING, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

The following findings were after the analysis of data collected.

  1. That the training and development programmed were adequately designed
  2. That human resources, training and development improve employee’s job performance.
  3. The training and development opportunities motivates employees.
  4. Also that the availability of training and development opportunities affect the rate to turnover.
  5. The performance of the training and development courses is a yardstick for staff appraisal in promotion.
  6. The benefits of training and development justify its cost implications.

The Short Coming of First Bank Training Programme Are as Follows

  1. The respondents believed that the programme do not cover most of the practical aspects of banking services.
  2. The scopes of the programme according to the respondents are confirmed only to First Bank’s internal operational system, nomination courses are not always based on meritocracy.
  3. The training programme are not supported by adequate job rotation to enable those trained practice the skills, they learnt during the training course.
  4. Most of the respondents were of the view that the duration for the courses is too short. Trainers’ recommendations on the course participants are most often not implemented.

5.1     Recommendations

The major purpose of the organizational learning system is to influence and bring about desirable human behavioural change for improvement in efficiency and productivity.

Therefore, several internal factors relating to the organizational climate and the work affect the learning system and process in one manner or the others.

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Prominent among these factors is cooperated philosophy, mission, objectives, structure and function. Other equally important factors that infringe on the learning situations and activities include; Operational practices and procedures, human resources, financial and physical resources, the communication system and leadership, or management style.

A sound manager should apply appropriate learning techniques and processes that can encourage subordinates to learn willingly and thereby induce in them a desirable behaivoural change, aimed at facilitating the achievements of specific organizational a unit objectives. To this end, leaders, managers and supervisors in organizations will have to assumed the key responsibility of:

  1. Setting realistic educational goals, which will result in desirable essential behavioural patterns, required job skills, vital information, communication and other related pre-requisites for efficiency and productivity.
  2. Creating a health organizational climate and productive work environment in which effective and purposeful learning by subordinates occurs in a manner that promotes optimally the attainments of corporate goals and objectives.

Certain motivating conditions must be met to facilitate a change in behaviour. Managers and supervisours therefore have to apply situational appropriate motivational factors in the context of this peculiar organizational environment.

Another important factor is that learning within the organizational setting if facilitate in relation to the amount of feedback given to the learner-employee about his efficiency, performance and improved productivity,

Managers should not that:

  1. Individual objective, interest, experience, talents and level of motivation, influences his efficiency productivity.
  2. Furnishing the employee with the most precise information of his on- the- job performance will lead to improve performance.
  3. The greater the delay in intimating the employee of performance, the less beneficial such information becomes to the employee in terms of learning and development that can enhance efficiency and productivity.
  4. Information the employee of his progress in learning should increase the rate of learning, level of motivation and performance.

Apart from the responsibility of inducing behavioural change in the subordinates, the manager should ensure; reinforcement of relevant knowledge, skills, attitude as well as the reward system. That equal training and development opportunity is given to every body; that trainers recommendations on the trainees are well implemented; that training programme are supported with adequate job rotation and job assignments to enable the trainees practice what they learnt in the training session.

The training programme should be structured to cove much of the practical aspects of the banking services. There is a need for extension of the training periods. The present situation whereby much information is given to trainees within a short period of time does not augur well for learning. There should be regular training programmes for trainer to help them update their knowledge.

Trainers should be equipped with materials that must be in uniformity with the present economics, social and technological environment.

If the above recommendation are considered and implemented, the researcher is well convinced that there will be a remarkable improvement in the services of banks, poor quality services currently inherent in banks will be a thing of the past.

The researcher wishes to stress that banks should keep and always refer to this research work whenever they are designing training and development programme for their staff. The current situation, whereby research works are thrown to the archives without any reference to them is not well found.

5.2     Conclusion

As the organizational activities that demand enormous resources, human resource development requires effective support in terms of appropriate institutional framework and arrangements. In this respect, the human resources training development policy of an organization will be derived from the  cooperate planning and policy objectives in general and manpower policy in particular. Thus, a well formulated human resources training and development policy, which is based on realistic organizational resources and capabilities, can be translated into concrete action through systematic plans, programmed and strategies. Through this approach, returns on investment in human resources and the attainments of cooperate goals and objectives will be enhanced.

A policy inspired work environment that promotes appropriate work culture and orientation that permeate all levels of the organizational hierarchy indicates a purposeful direction toward enhancing efficiency and productivity. To this end, formal manpower training and development should be supported with sound and supportive policies and plans as an essential integral point of organizational growth and development efforts.

In the light of foregoing, the often expressed view that of all resources available to the organization, human resources are the greatest underscores that increase important overriding roles and outstanding contributions to the attainments of cooperate goals and objectives. It is therefore absolutely necessary for management to create a creative, innovative and responsive organizational climate and situations that provide ample opportunities for organizational members at whatever level of continue learn, develop and apply their talents and skills in the best possible.

The vital role of the manager or supervisor as adviser coach counselors, guide, moderator and developer should serve as an effective support and indeed a catalyst for the realization for manpower training and development. This is a very positive way through which formal training can be fully meaningful and rewarding utimately in terms of individual growth and organizational survival. The researcher has demonstrated in this study by the use of analytical and statistical technologies that efficient planned, and structured training programme is directly related to the level of productivity.

Training and Development of Human Resources. A Critical Factor in Banking Operations (A Case Study of First Bank of Nigeria Plc.) Enugu Main Branch 

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