The Subsurface Maps and their Applications in the Oil Industry

The Subsurface Maps and their Applications in the Oil Industry

Abstract

          Seismic interpretation data and applications are the key element of a rapid technological evolution in the remote sensing of the subsurface maps that has resulted in geoscientists movement from data poor to data rich Stewart, S. A. 1999. The proliferation of subsurface data has profoundly affected the productivity of oil exploration of industry within last two decade. This is radically improved of the ability to predict what lies beneath the earth surface, exploration and production.

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Log in construction maps (well) are the supplemented by 2-D data (seismic section and maps) in the 1950s and by 3-D seismic data from the 1970s onwards Davies R. I., Bell B. R. and shoulders S. (2002). However, the evolution of the point are the essentially dealt with a seismic constructions maps without the used of fourth dimension-time and the advent of a recent recorded change in the subsurface due to hydrocarbon extraction overtime. Today, exploration involves the extraction of more geological information from the seismic signals than ever before (Leadholm et al 1985).

 INTRODUCTION

Subsurface maps are perhaps the most important vehicle used to explore for undiscovered hydrocarbons and to develop proven hydrocarbon reserves. However, the subject of subsurface mapping is probably the least discussed of interpretation and the construction of structure/Isopach maps, yet most important aspect of petroleum exploration and development. As a field developed from its initial discovery, a large volume of well, seismic and production data are obtained. With these data, the accuracy of the subsurface interpretation is improved through time.

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The most accurate interpretation for any specifics oil and gas field can be prepared only after the field has been extensively drilled and most of the hydrocarbons have been depleted. However accurate and reliable subsurface interpretations and maps are required throughout all exploration and development activities.

1.2     BASIC DEFINITIONS

  1. Surface mapping: Is a way to visualize various geologic and hydrologic features in any dimension for a 1-D cross section to a 4-D production map.
  2. Seismic data: is a method of exploration, geophysics that used the principles of seismology to estimate the properties of the earth subsurface from reflected seismic waves.
  3. Seismic interpretation: Is the determination of the geological significance of seismic data.
  4. Seismic stratigraphy: Is a techniques for interpreting stratigraphic information from seismic data.

CHAPTER FIVE

Subsurface maps and their application in the oil industry: a case study from geofizika in the south-east Cameroon in south area. Fairhead, J. D 2010.

The area involved in this study is located the south- eastern part of Cameroon (central Africa) the south – eastern Cameroon region rises may geological challenge due in part of the wide spacing between primary surface observations and a short supply of surface observation

The area was affected by a series of tectonic event due to the collision between the pan-Africa belt and the Congo craton that formed the structural features of the southern Cameroon Nzent et al 1984, the most relevant geophysical and studies were carried out in northern edge of Congo craton to determine audio- magne – tolleuric investigations and subsurface structure of the schist – granite contact (Mbom–Abane 1997), Shandini N. Y. et al (2010)

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According to Mbom–Abane (1997) there are two main unit area namely; Yaounde domian and Ntem complex that have been identified in the study area.

The Yaounde domain is a huge allochtonous nape unit thrusted in southward Congo Craton Mvondo et al 2003. According to Silva, J. M. (2004) this domain is belonging to the northern pan-Africa belt and includes

  • Mbalmayo – Bengbis
  • Yolaadouma series.

The ntem complex constitute the north – western part of the Congo croton & is very well exposed in southern camroon (Maurizot etal, 1986).

Fig. 9 geological sketch map of the study area (modified after Feybasse et al 1987)

According to Tchameni (2000) the complex is made up of a dominant of Archean rocks with some reworked material that form in early proterozone times. This include ntem unit and Mbalam series.

CHAPTER SIX

Summary and conclusion

As well as subsurface maps and the their application in the oil industry is concern, the petroleum exploration development and other component such as geoscientist and engineers are expected to understand the actual types of subsurface maps for the insufficient formal training by the use of fundamental principal or method that underline must detail construction of subsurface maps in the oil industries weather the data source is a seismic interpretation or well log correlation Schlumberger 1998. Or thus seismic interpretation data & applications are the key element of a rapid technology evolution in the remote sensing of the surface maps that resulted in geoscientist movement from the data poor & to data rich, Stewart S. A. 1999.

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I hereby commend that, oil industries should enable to produce adequate training for the benefit of applicant for the work done in construction productivities and oil exploration under subsurface maps.

 The Subsurface Maps and their Applications in the Oil Industry

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