The Impact Of Capital Market Formation On Economic Growth Of The Nigerian Economy.

The Impact Of Capital Market Formation On Economic Growth Of The Nigerian Economy. 1980 To 2012

INTRODUCTION          

  • Background to the study

Capital formation refers to savings drive that sets up financial institution, public borrowing, development of capital markets, privatization of financial institution as well as development of secondary financial markets. It is a major determinant of economic growth. It refers to any method for mobilizing capital resources for investment purposes. It is used in economic theory as a modern term for capital accumulation and refers to the total capital stock that has been formed or to the growth of this total stock of capital. The relationship between capital formation, saving and economic growth is reputed to perform some necessary functions which promote the development of the economy. The link between these three issues is unidirectional moving from savings to investment and the economic growth. Read More »

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Bank Failure, Causes and Consequences

 Bank Failure, Causes and Consequences

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.0 INTRODUCTION

The researcher had laid hands on some textbooks, journals, seminar papers and magazines in then course of the study, which helped the researcher in gaining insight in banks and banking and specifically how bank failure impaired the depositors and the bank management.

The literature review will cover the definitions of banks by many authors /bodies, the meaning of bank failure, sources /causes of bank failure in banking system or causes of bank failure, recent development in financial services sector and bank failure in Nigeria, regulatory authorities efforts at addressing issues remedy of financial sector failure, emerging issues and challenges for the banking industry consequences of bank failure to the economy and the entire economy in general

2.1. DEFINITIONS OF A BANK:

It will be counter some to formulate a definition of bank that would be wide enough to embrace the diverse activities, carried on by commercial banks.

The complex activities of merchant banks have little in common with the services offered by the commercial banks, National savings banks, and National industrial development bank. One could of course, give the word “bank a narrow meaning and call that a definition or give a much wider meaning and call that a definition. The truth is that for one to define a word “bank” it is often necessary to examine the context in which it is used. The researcher tend to define the word “bank” under three headings:

(a)Some definitions by textbook writers

(b) Some statutory definition and

© The view expressed by the courts. Read More »

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Problems of Educating the Physically Handicapped Children in Nigeria

Problems of Educating the Physically Handicapped Children in Nigeria (A Case Study of College Of Education, Ekiadolor-Benin)

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter deals with the review of literature relating to problems that affects physically handicapped students and the way people perceived them. The following sub-headings were used:

  1. The public perception of handicapped children.
  2. Aims of educating the child and its effects on the handicapped students.
  3. The teacher’s role in the development of handicapped students.
  4. Handicapped children and the past development in learning.

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Public Policy and Grass Root Development in Nigeria

Public Policy and Grass Root Development in Nigeria (A Critical Appraisal of National Poverty Eradication Programme on Asari-Toru L. G. A of River State)

 PUBLIC POLICY; AN OVERVIEW

  • NATURE OF PUBLIC POLICY

In a developing country like Nigeria, the government is the biggest spender and he biggest employer of labour. Therefore, the activities of government should be of interest and concern to the public or citizenry. For instance, in a predominantly poor society like ours which is noted for the prevalence of absolute poverty in all of its characteristics features, poverty is massive, passive and chronic engulfing a large proportion of its citizenry, one should be interested to know how government plans to tackle the problem. Thus, National Poverty Eradication Programme was introduced in 2001 in a bid to curb poverty or reduce poverty level in Nigeria.

In order to extend the Frontiers of our knowledge of the causes and consequences of policy decisions, which in turn, improves our understanding of the character and behaviour of organized society public policy comes into place. Read More »

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Use of Public Relations as a Managerial Tool in Business Organization

Use of Public Relations as a Managerial Tool in Business Organization (A case study of FBN).

In this chapter, an attainment will be made to examine historical antecedents of Public Relations both from the global and Nigerian perspectives, then, discussion on their various functions and later endeavor to define Public Relations; that is the place of P.R. in management, measuring its effectiveness in organizations especially in the banks.

THE HISTORICAL ANTECEDENTS OF PUBLIC RELATIONS

Before now there was really no organized practice called Public Relations.  It started as different thins in different places.  The profession is as old as mankind.

Relating well with neighbors, friends, visitors or even dressing well are all parts of P.R.  In other words P.R. is more of human relations.  In as much as our activities involve communication and our desire is to generate goodwill, we are definitely involved in the P.R process.

On their own account Cutlip and Center (1978:66-91) chronicled events that gave impetus to Public Relations practice.  For instance, the Greek theorists wrote about the importance of public will, even though they did not specially use the term public relations.  The Roman coined the expression vox populi, vox Det – “the voice of the people is the voice of God”.  Machiaville wrote that, “Not without reason is the voice of the people compared to the voice of God”.  In the ancient countries of Iraq, Egypt, Persia, India, there were dotting of Public Relations activities.

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Resource Control Agitations Political Stability in Nigeria

Resource Control Agitations Political Stability in Nigeria (A Case Study of South-South)

 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF REVENUE ALLOCATION IN NIGERIA.

Revenue allocation can be defined as “the process where one level of government turning over a portion of the revenue it receives from Taxation to another level of government usually a lower one”. Also. Edward David V., defined it as the “programme by which the federal government gives funds to state and local government without specifying the use to which they must be put” And summing up these one can say that revenue allocation involves one government’s sharing its revenue with other governments.

In all federations finance is the most critical policy issue in inter-governmental relations. The sharing of revenue among the various levels of government in federal systems has generated a lot of controversy. The basic problem is how to allocate revenue to all the levels of government to satisfy them and enable them to have the financial capacity to perform their assigned duties. Read More »

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Revenue Allocation and Political Stability in Nigeria

Revenue Allocation and Political Stability in Nigeria

LITERATURE REVIEW

IDENTIFICATION OF REVENUE ALLOCATION

Revenue allocation can be defined as the practice by which one level of government turning over a portion of the revenue it receives from taxation to another level of government usually a lower one. In other words, Edward David V. defined it as the program by which the federal government gives fund to the state and local government without specifying the use to which the fund must be put. And summing up this one can say that revenue allocation involves one government sharing its revenue allocation involve one government sharing its revenue with other government.

The revenue sharing makes a turning point in federal, state, local council relatives. It is the beginning of decentralization of government power, the restoration of a brightened balance between local councils over state and federal government. The argument is generated from the usual thinking at the federal government as dating with local problems. The major tool for such coping apart from the laws themselves is money. Read More »

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Reward system and teachers’ attitude to work

Reward system and teachers’ attitude to work  in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State. (Educational administration)

The literature is discussed under the following sub-headings

  1. Conceptual review of literature on reward system
  2. Reward system and attitude to work
  3. Material reward and attitude to work
  4. Financial reward and attitude to work
  5. Verbal reward and attitude to work
  6. Intrinsic reward and attitude to work
  7. Literature Appraisal

The Conceptual review of literature on Rewards system

Reward  is defined by Crowther;Ashby;& Kavanagh (1995) as a thing that is given or received in return for doing something good or for working hard. Maslow (1954) believe that when people excel in the performance of their duties and responsibilities, they must be duly rewarded.

Afful-Broni (2004) states that reward system includes all financial and non-financial arrangements designed to attract, retain, maintain and motivate employees to high levels of performance. Rewards available to employees are generally classified under two headings: Intrinsic and Extrinsic rewards. Read More »

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The Role Teaching Sex Education in Junior Secondary School

The Role Teaching Sex Education in Junior Secondary School: A Case Study of Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State

 In this chapter, the researcher reviewed related literature. The ideas relevant to the topic shall be presented under the following sub-headings.

  • Sex education
  • The role of sex education
  • The effect of sex education
  • Whop to handle the course

SEX EDUCATION

       Many administrations has been greatly worried if sex education is relevant as a course to be taught in schools, who to handle it the effect it has on the society and the students and if the introduction of the course will make students become juvenile in the society.

In recent times, it has been discovered that most of our social problem will be possibly removed with, the inclusion of sex education in the secondary school curriculum. So the school as an institution is supposed to guide the students by giving them the knowledge about sex materials. According to Fakune (1986) defined sex education as process of making the individual develop a positive attitude towards sex. It enables an individual to develop a positive attitude and also to enjoy his or her life fully and to develop into a responsible members of the society to which he or she belong to the went farther to say that, teenagers need to be given a through explanation on how their body functions and how to protect it from immoral people. Read More »

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Rural Development, a Means of Combating Rural Urban Migration

Rural Development, a Means of Combating Rural Urban Migration

 LITERATURE REVIEW

INTRODUCTION

The key to successful development of a nation among other things is the promotion of a viable rural economy. The challenges and prospects of rural development in Nigeria have been of great concern to the different tiers of government due to the increased rate of rural-urban migration. The various policies of the Nigerian government on rural development are to improve the living condition in the rural areas with a view to curbing the streaming rural-urban migration.

Mulgunji (1990) cited in Laah (2013) opined that the problem of rural development cannot be viewed as a narrow technical problem of increasing output, but that of the development of appropriate organizations and institutions to mobilize and encourage members of the rural society to greater productivity, help them overcome constraints of utilizing available resources, while ensuring equitable distribution of results of their collective efforts among themselves.

MEANING OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT

Development is an all encompassing word which involves the gradual growth of something or advancement through progressive changes over time (Hornby, 2000). These changes may be multi-dimensional involving changes in structures, attitude, institutions as well as acceleration of economic growth, reduction of inequality and eradication of absolute poverty in the society (Umeabali, 2006). Development involves economic growth, equality or social justice and socio-economic changes which are self sustaining.

Development is that process which is concerned with the general improvement of man’s living conditions. Thus, both the physical and psychological elements of development mutually reinforce each other in the process of general upliftment, which is indispensable to development. Therefore, rural development is a determined and concise attempt to focus on the general upliftment of man’s living conditions in the rural area. Read More »

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