Role of Traditional Rulers in Community Development

Role of Traditional Rulers in Community Development Case of Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State

CHAPTER THREE

3.1 The role of Traditional Rulers on the Social Development of Ikwo Local Government area of Ebonyi State:

     The role of the traditional rulers in the development of any given society cannot be disputed. Some national issues have been agitating my mind, and one of them concerns the constitutional roles that are envisaged for our traditional Nigeria order, peace and good government which remain the responsibilities of our royal fathers. It is against this background that this research is being carried out to examine some of the roles of traditional rulers in the overall development of our country specifically the Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

The traditional institution has been thoroughly humiliated over the years 1. The main reason is that it is a conquered institution in most cases. Some of the conquests by the colonialists were followed with heavy primitive expedition. The cases of the once mighty Benin kingdom and Sokoto caliphate brought down about a country ago are prime examples. The colonialists introduced the policy of removing traditional rulers from civic and political relevance by importing the policy of their home country.

The imposition of ceremonial roles on traditional rulers in Nigeria which their Ikwo counterpart are not in isolation and their strict prohibition from participation in partisan politics were  necessary  for the prosecution of colonial rule and even the military era that followed shortly after independence.

It is now becoming very clear that the nation is losing valuable manpower by pretending that traditional rulers are expendable in the administration of our democratic polity. This is the truth. Let us forget about intra-racial and inter-ethnic wars of the time that was not peculiar to us. Even the European countries were not free from these similar debates.  Today the power shift occasioned by western system of government has deprived our tradition al rulers of their primordial roles.

Nnanna noted that the dethronement of traditional rulers was followed up with the denial of their right to benefit from social tributes that helped make their ancestors wealthy on the throne. Their fortunes dipped even further with the dawn of indigenous rule. Today the rulers play little or no active role in revenue generation through taxation. In order to survive, traditional institutions gradually become strong elements in the campaign organizations of ruling politicians in spite of their prohibition from partisan politics. Most of them have resorted to the award of chieftaincy titles as a means of survival and the temptation to give out these titles to all manner of people with money is always there2.

We can restore the dignity of our traditional institution by defining some constitutional roles for the royal fathers. In this vein, they will be given tasks and they will receive rewards in form of regular income (not prehend or tokenistic stipends).

In recognition of the roles which a traditional ruler is expected to play in the administration of their local communities, the colonial government introduced the system of indirect rule which made the Nigeria traditional chiefs the central figure around which the system of administration of local community revolved.

kusamotu highlighted the following as the roles assigned to traditional rulers under the customary laws of different ethnic group  in Nigeria which Ikwo Local government Area is one. They are:

  1. Preservation of public peace
  2. Settlement of disputes among their subjects
  3. Assisting in the collection of taxes and
  4. Acting as the custodian of their subjects and community customs and traditions 3 .

As the custodians of customary laws, while carrying out their customary functions, the traditional rulers must ensure that the discharge of such traditional functions is done in such a way that will not be in breach of the constitution or any statutory provision or in a way repugnant to morality, common law, equity, natural justice of good conscience.

Other roles of traditional rulers include amongst others the following.

  • Presiding over the meetings of elders and minor chieftains in their domains.
  1. Conferment of traditional chieftaincy title on qualified indigenes according to the customary law.
  2. Conferment of honorary chieftaincy titles on deserving indigenes and non-indigenes of their community.
  3. Encouragement of economic development in the areas within their domains.

3.1.1 The Role of traditional Rulers on the cultural development of Ikwo community

  Our culture would appear to be present in two manifestations, which though basically conflicting, yet manage somehow to exist side by side.

Kolade identified these two manifestations of culture as “primordial and constitutional” 4. Our primordial culture is that which existed even before society became conscious of its corporate existence, this forming the context within which the people came to relate to one another from the start of their co-existence. Within the primordial culture, standards of inter-relationship have evolved from the perceived need to respect each other’s interest and rights in order to enjoy peace rather than experience consistent tension and conflict. In its primordial state, culture has built up traditions of communal collaboration where people agree on broad forms of coordination and willingly commit themselves to pattern of relationship.

The distinct feature of this structure is that participants willingly come together after discovering that it is in their best interest to act in concert. This willing participation becomes the basis for regulating inter and intra-group behavior. For example, it promotes situation in which members of Ikwo community band together by agreement on particular days to embark on community development project such a construction of new rural/feeder roads or local bridges using nothing but the resources and efforts freely donated by individuals according to their capacity.

On the other hand, constitutional culture has come about because the process of modernization created formal structures of political relationship and governance by which society could be relatively easily administered. Our experience of colonial governance created situations in which it became fashionable to concentrate resources in the hands of “district officers” who dispensed resources to village communities from central sources. Thus development came to be regarded as something that should come from government at the centre-federal, state or local rather than something growing out of the real needs of the community and the readiness of its members to make a joint positive contribution. The indigenous community was taught to express expectations rather than continue to be maximally productive through self effort.

Modernization has added another role to the aforementioned traditional roles. This is the role of traditional rulers as representative of their communities either as the plaintiffs, being on behalf of their communities or as the defendants defending actions on behalf of their communities. This role emanates as a result of the prime position occupied by the traditional chieftains among the members of the community 5.

Traditional rulers indeed in Ikwo clan and other parts of the country were trusted with the responsibilities of managing community land. The management of community land by traditional rulers also includes the right to allocate land to strangers or new immigrants who decide to settle in Ikwo after attaining certain criteria to that effect.

Describing the traditional chieftaincy holders role as the manager and protector of communal land, late Dr. Elias, in his book Nigeria land law states “the chief as trusted or protector can allocate land as well as revoke its grants can receive tribute or rent and eject from the land for good cause and has a right of reversion as juridical embodiment of the community. He represents his own community in dealing with another community or with the other third parties

3.1.2 The Role of Traditional rulers on political Development of Ikwo Local Government Area       

The importance of chieftaincy institution in the administration of Nigeria was accorded due recognition by the colonial rulers of the country. It was as the result of the recognition of the importance of the institution that prompted the British government to include certain prominent paramount traditional rulers in the enlarged executive council and an advisory and deliberative body known as the Nigerian council in 1914. The importance of the institution was never lost sight of of the composition of the legislative bodies established for Nigeria under the Richard constitution of 1914. Under Richard’s constitution a house of chiefs was established for the western and the northern regions . In addition the two regions had their traditional chiefs as nominated unofficial members to the legislative council. Subsequent constitutions from 1957 down recognized the unique position and importance of chieftaincy institution 5 .

Kusamotu noted, that “in recognition of the importance of chieftaincy institution in Nigeria, the inclusion of a traditional chief from each state of the federation, in the members of council of state created for the country for the country under and by virtue of the provisions of section140 of the constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria, 1979 is guaranteed. The constitutional provisions which state the mode of appointing a chief to the council of state read: One person from each state shall as respects for that state be appointed by the council of chiefs of the state among themselves”.

As a member of council of state, a traditional chief’s duty and those of other members of the council are advisory. At the state level the constitution also allowed each state of the federation to establish state council of chiefs, the constitutional duties and powers of a state council of chief are stated in third schedule part of 1979 constitution.  The council shall have power to advice the governor on any matter relating to customary law or cultural affairs, inter-communal relation and chieftaincy matters.

The council shall also have power to advice the governor whenever required to do so:

  1. The maintenance of public order with the state on any part thereof.
  2. Such other matters as the governor may direct.

With a view to involving traditional chiefs in the administration and development of their chieftaincy, Section 8 of the constitution empower each state house of   assembly to enact a law for the establishment of a traditional council which shall be presided over by a traditional ruler for a local government  area or a group of local government areas.

The traditional council can act only in advisory capacity in carrying out its constitutional duties which are enumerated in the 45 schedule (part 11) of the constitution thus,

  1. Giving general advice to the local council concerned.
  2. Advising the local government concerned on the proposed development plans.
  3. Assisting in the collection of taxes as may be required.
  4. Advising on religious matter where appropriate.
  5. Promoting and advising on art and culture.
  6. Subject to the law of the state dealing with and advising on chieftaincy matters and traditional titles and offices.
  7. Deliberating and expressing opinion to any organization on any other matters which deems to be of importance to the area as a whole or which may be referred to it by the government or other organization
  8. Assisting in the mobilization of human and material resources towards self-reliance, community development and welfare within the area.
  9. Such other functions as the local government council may from time to time refer to it.

Meanwhile, the traditional rulers in Ikwo and indeed every other part, though from the colonial era looked down as ceremonial, still have influential power in terms of political development of the country. They have closer contacts with the local inhabitants, interact with them frequently. They provide even information on security to the law enforcement agencies before they get out of hand. They are the chief mobilizers when it comes to political activities.

 

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Influence of Parents Attitude towards on Female Education

Influence of Parents Attitude towards on Female Educations in Ngbo West

Importance of Women Education:

The benefits derivable from education include the following:  enhancement of the quality of living, food, housing, clothing, health, transport, communication, entertainment and gainful use of leisure. If the vast majority of our women folk were educated, their personal development would have been enhanced remarkable; children and husband also stand to gain tremendously.

Ali (1995) states that, the importance of formal and non-formal education is predictable and acknowledged in Nigeria even since the pre-colonial era. Even the illiterates in Nigeria now appreciate the importance of education, not minding they do not have it. The appreciation has come a long way indeed, the founding fathers of Nigeria include: chief Awolowo, chief Herbert Macauley Azikiwe, Allaji Amino kano, Mazi Mbonu Ojike and a host of others play very important roles in ensuring the establishment and nurturing of a variety of schools catering for a variety of personal and national needs particularly before and after independence in 1960. Read More »

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effects of stress on the academic performance of students

effects of stress on the academic performance of students of the University of Benin

                                                        Chapter Two

Review of Related Literature

This chapter reviews relevant literature relating to stress and academic performance.  This chapter will be interested on the review of literature on the effects of stress on the academic performance of students.  Thus, the chapter examines:

  1. Meaning and Nature of Stress
  2. Classification of Stress
  3. Psychological aspect of Stress
  4. Coping Mechanism
  5. Highly Adaptive, Problem-focused Mechanism
  6. Mental Inhibition/disapproval mechanism
  • Active Mechanism
  1. Stress Responses
  2. Stress Management
  3. Stress Prevention and Resilience-building
  4. Signs and Symptoms of Stress
  5. Some Common Misconceptions about Stress

Read More »

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Analysis of the Problems of Student Teachers, During Teaching Practice Exercise

Analysis of the Problems of Student Teachers, During Teaching Practice Exercise

Chapter Two             

Review of Related Literature

This chapter was designed to re view related literature with special attention on the following sub- topic generated from the problem.

  1. Teaching practice: its meaning and concept
  2. Aims and objective of teaching practice
  3. Teaching practice and its implication.
  4. Problem of teaching practice.
    1. Individual differences.
    2. The use of teaching aids
    3. Co-operation between students and teachers.
    4. Evaluation of learners
      1. Summary of the reviews literature.

Read More »

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Domestic Savings on the Economic Growth of Nigeria

Impact of Domestic Savings on the Economic Growth of Nigeria (1980 – 2013)

Chapter One: Introduction:                                                            

  • Background of the study
  • Statement of the problem
  • Research Questions
  • Objectives of the study
  • Hypothesis of the Study
  • Significance of the study
  • Scope of the Study
  • Limitations of the study

Chapter Two: Literature Review

  • Theoretical literature
  • Empirical Literature

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

  • Research Design
  • Model Specification
  • Estimation Procedure
  • Data Sources

Chapter Four: Data Presentation and Analysis

  • Presentation of Result
  • Test of Hypothesis
  • Implications of the Study

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • Summary of Findings
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendation

References

Appendix I

Appendix Ii Read More »

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Factors Affecting the Effective Studying of Economics in Secondary Schools

Factors Affecting the Effective Studying of Economics in Secondary Schools in Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State

Chapter Two

Review of Related Literature

This chapter reviews the works that are related to the study problem that affects the teaching and learning of economics in senior secondary school in Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. This review will therefore take a deep look at the discipline economics and other related issues. This research works in books, journals, internet and related literatures research.

This will be discussed under the following sub-themes:

  1. Conceptual frame work of economics.
  2. Economics as a teaching subject.
  3. The place of economic in the curriculum.
  4. Method of teaching economics.
  5. Factors militating against the teaching of economics.
  6. Factors militating against the learning of economics.
  7. Theoretical framework.
  8. Empirical studies.
  9. Summary of review of literature.

Read More »

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Incidence of Nystatin Resistant Candida Isolated from the Urine of Healthy Female Students

Incidence of Nystatin Resistant Candida Isolated from the Urine of Healthy Female Students in Presco Campus, Abakaliki

                                                            Chapter One

Introduction

Candida species are opportunistic yeast affecting the genitourinary tracts. It belongs to the subclass Ascomycota and measures two to four mm in diameter (Prescott et al., 2008). The genus Candida encompasses more than 160 species. The organism variously can be found among humans, other mammals, birds, insects, arthropods, fish, animal waste, plants, mushrooms, honey, necter, fresh water, sea water and in the air (Bennett et al., 1995). Candida is listed by the center for disease control (CDC) as a cause of sexually transmitted disease (Prescott et al., 2008). No other mycotic pathogen produces as diverse a spectrum of opportunistic disease in humans as does Candida. Candida species are important nosocomial pathogens and can be transmitted sexually (Tatfeng et al., 2004). Read More »

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effect of monetary policy on bank performance in Nigeria

effect of monetary policy on bank performance in Nigeria. case of zenith bank. (1992 to 2014)

 Review of Related Literature

2.1   Conceptual Review

Sani, Amusa and Agbeyangi (2012),defined monetary policy as the combination of measures taken by monetary authorities(i.e. the CBN and the ministry of finance)to influence directly or indirectly both the supply of money and credit to the economy and the structure of interest rate for economic growth, price stability, and balance of payment equilibrium. The action is carried out through changing money supply or interest rates with the aim of managing the quantity of money in the economy.

Onwukwe (2003),says monetary policy is the deliberate control of money supply and  rates of interest by the central bank to try to effect a change in employment, inflation or balance of payments.He noted that  monetary policy in controlling interest rates, can effect changes in the capital account of a country’s balance of payments since relatively higher rates of interest in one country will attract funds from other countries in the short term. He concluded by saying that monetary and fiscal policies are among the approaches adopted to achieve economic stabilization. Read More »

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effectiveness of the monetary policy on price stability in Nigeria.

effectiveness of the monetary policy on price stability in Nigeria. 1981 – 2013

                                                                     Chapter Two

Literature Review

2.1 Theoretical Literature

2.1.1 The Quantity Theory of Money

The classical school evolved through the concerted efforts and contributions of economists like Adam Smith, J.B Say, David Ricardo, A.C Pigou and others who share the same belief. The classical model is based on Say’s law of the market which states that “supply creates its own demand”. Thus they believe that the economy automatically tends towards full employment level and hence decided upon the quantity theory of money as their basis for analyzing inflation.  In its simplest form, it states that the general price level in the economy depends on the supply of money (Sloman, 1994) i.e. P=f (Ms).  Under this theory inflation is simply caused by a rise in money supply. This theory is one of the oldest explanations of price changes and it comes in various versions. The most popular of the quantity theory of money are; the cash transaction or Fisherian version, the cash balance approach or the Cambridge equation which was named after the founders (the Cambridge economists) and the income quantity theory of money. The classical economists did not introduce the role of money in their model in terms of its demand and supply; instead, they introduced money by using the quantity theory. Read More »

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A Critical Analysis of Budgetary Control: Its Effectiveness and Efficiency in a Non Profit Making Organization

A Critical Analysis of Budgetary Control: Its Effectiveness and Efficiency in a Non Profit Making Organization (A Case Study Of N.C.R.I Badeggi)

 Introduction

The essence of budgeting is to provide an essential element of control in an organization in order to facilitate the achievement of set objectives .The control process is the fundamental   organization      link between the manager and the other people in an organization   in  a non profit making organization output various with the objective with which they were established. The objective of public organization could be social and or development in nature

. however this does not  means  that public organization can not make profit if government policy changes to   privatizing or commercializing them. The main structural problem of these type of organization is the sacrifice of the organization  profitability for social efficacy which must be achieved in research  institute Badeggi falls into this category.  Read More »

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