Tax as a Stimulus for Growth and Development in Nigeria

Tax as a Stimulus for Growth and Development in Nigeria

Tax and Taxation Defined:

Tax:

Many definitions have been advanced for tax and taxation in an attempt to explain the two terms vividly. For instance, Ogundele (1999), in his definitional issues contends that tax should:

*be a compulsory payment

*be a payment to a government

*be for common benefit

*have a known formula

*have distinctive beneficiary.

He therefore, defines tax as “the levy by public authorities with a tax jurisdiction of compulsory contributions by citizens to defray part of the cost of the government activities in providing the needs of the society”(Ogundele, 1999: 14). In his own view, Anyaduba (1999) defines tax “as a compulsory levy imposed by a public authority on the income, capital, profit or wealth of an individual, family, community, estate, corporate or unincorporated body e.t.c for the public purpose”. Read More »

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the Causes and Effect of Indiscipline among Students in Secondary School

the Causes and Effect of Indiscipline among Students in Secondary School: A Case Study of Egor Local Government Area, Edo State

LITERATURE REVIEW

Much has been written on the subject of indiscipline. However, the review of literature on this topic will be carried out under the following sub-headings:

  1. The concept of discipline/indiscipline
  2. The causes of indiscipline
  3. The effects of indiscipline
  4. The control measure

THE CONCEPT OF DISCIPLINE/INDISCIPLINE

Discipline is synonymous with punishment. According to this concept discipline is used only when child violates the rules and regulations set down by parents, teachers or adult in charge of the affairs of the community in which he lives. Used correctly discipline is dubious has said, a process of training and learning that fosters growth and development. It comes from the same word as discipline. The parents and teachers are the leader and the child is the disciplined who learns from the way of life that lead to usefulness and happiness. Discipline is therefore society’s way of teaching the child the moral behaviour approved by the group. Read More »

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Control of Inflation Using Central Bank of Nigeria (Cbn) Monetary Policy

Control of Inflation Using Central Bank of Nigeria (Cbn) Monetary Policy

 LITERATURE REVIEW

MEANING OF INFLATION

This is the rise of prices, this arise when there is much supply of money over the supply of goods and services, which money can buy (Okeke, 1994).

Inflation can also as a continuous and credit relative to available good and services resulting in substantial and continuing rise in the general price level. Inflation it’s defined as a continuous rise in the price as measured by the implicit price deflator for gross national product, (Orjih, 1996).

It is a state of disequilibria in which too much money is chasing too few goods. Anything that tends to raise the total of spending in termed, (Ude et al 1995). Inflation exists when the general price level is continually rising. In other words, it is a significant and sustained increase in the general price level, (Nwabah, 1995). Read More »

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Design, construction and test on a two station simple intercom system

Design, construction and test on a two station simple intercom system

LITERATURE REVIEW

OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLES OF AN INTERCOM SYSTEM

A telephone uses an electric current to convey sound information from our home to that of a friend. When the two parties  are  talking  on  the  telephone,  for  instance,   the telephone company is therefore sending a steady electric current   through   the   phones;   the   two   telephones   are therefore sharing this steady current. Because of these total current sharing, every change in the current through one telephone causes a corresponding change in the current through the other friends telephone or whosoever was communicating. Thus, as one party talks, the current through the other friends telephone fluctuate. A speaker in that telephone   responds   to   these   current   fluctuations   by compressing and rarefying the air. The resulting air pressure fluctuation reproduces the sound of the voice.

The above description holds for a full duplex telephony system with little difference when considering half duplex telephoning (a simple intercommunication system in this case). On the other hand, a simple intercom system whose operation is restricted to a particular destination may derive its current for operation from a power source of about 9volts, 12 volts, etc. depending on the design and designer’s test. It uses current as well when the Intercom is put to use.

An intercom system may consist of two intercom stations linked to each other with a push – to – talk (PTT) switch. The   loudspeakers   act   both   as   loudspeaker   and   as   a microphone or loudspeaker and microphone used separately. Read More »

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The Effect of Bank Recapitalization on the Economy of Nigeria

The Effect of Bank Recapitalization on the Economy of Nigeria

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

DEVELOPMENT OF BANKING INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA

The financial system of any society is the framework within which capital formation takes place, whereby the savings of some members of the society are made available to other members of the society for productive investment. The process is made possible by the intermediation of financial institutions. The primary institutions concerned with this function are the banks.

The banking system mostly practiced in Nigeria is the branch banking system which is common in all commonwealth and European countries.

Banking development can be traced back as far as 1892. The development can be looked at from the evolutionary days of banking in Nigeria and this is classified into six major phases as identified below:

PHASE ONE 1892 – 1912

1892 marked the real beginning of banking activities in Nigeria with the establishment in January 1892 of the African Banking Corporation. This bank however, could not survive the Lagos trade recession of that period, and therefore had to surrender itself to Elder Dumpster and Company in 1893. The assets of the bank were finally taken over by the Bank of British West Africa (BBWA) established in 1894, now known as First Bank of Nigeria Plc. By the end of the decade 1899, a bank called Anglo-African Bank was established and it competed with BBWA. This competition could not last long, because Anglo-African Bank was absorbed by BBWA in 1912. It was therefore no surprise that when the West African Currency Board (WACB) was established in 1912, BBWA became the sole agent for currency distribution in the whole region.

First and second decades of the evolution of banking in Nigeria was therefore dominated by only one bank, BBWA now called First Bank Plc”. Read More »

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Recruitment Form Nigerian Police 2015/2016 – NPF Application Portal

Recruitment Form Nigerian Police 2015/2016 – NPF Application Portal

PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENT
SEVEN (7) STEPS TO FILLING CADET ASP Online APPLICATION FORM:

  1. Application must be between Friday, 1st April to Friday, 13th May 2016.
  2. Applicants must have a functional/working email address before you proceed with your application
  3. To Apply for Cadet Assistant Superintendent of Police (ASP), Applicants must possess a degree (B.Sc. B.A, B.Tech. HND or an equivalent degree from reputable university or polytechnic)
  4. Read and understand the WARNING PAGE before proceeding.
  5. Click the link at the bottom of the warning page to proceed to AFFIRMATION PAGE.
  6. Click the “I ACCEPT” link on the AFFIRMATION PAGE if you understood the requirements for Cadet ASP that you are applying for, that “I ACCEPT” link also imply that you promise to be of good conduct throughout the duration of the recruitment process.
  7. You are automatically taken to the CADET ASP APPLICATION FORM, begin to fill in your details there.

These are three (3) categories of recruitments:

  1. CADET ASSISTANT SUPERINTENDENT OF POLICE (ASP); (Candidates MUST poses at least B.Sc. B.A, B.Tech. HND or an equivalent degree from a reputable university or polytechnic);
    ii. CADET INSPECTOR OF POLICE; (Candidates MUST possess at least one of the following from a reputable polytechnic or college of education: OND, NCE, or their equivalents.);
    iii. POLICE CONSTABLE Candidates MUST have at least FIVE Credit Passes in WAEC or its equivalent in not more than 2 sittings)

Recruitment portal is now open for applicant as advertised on National Dailies. You can visit www.npf.gov.ng or www.psc.gov.ng to apply.

Requirements

Before you start filling the Nigerian police recruitment form online, ensure you meet the requirements below:

  1. Applicant must be a citizen of Nigeria
    2.) Applicant must have a valid identity card. You can use your voters card, Driving licences or international passport.
    3.) Applicant must have first school leaving certificate
    4.) You should have, Five credit pass including English language and mathematics is compulsory. (For those applying for Police Constables)
    5.) Ordinary National Diploma (OND), Advanced Level (A level), National Certificate in Education (NCE) or their equivalents for Cadet Inspectors.
    6.) Applicant University degree or a Higher National Diploma (HND) for Nigerian Police Recruitment Cadet ASP applicants.

Nigerian Police Recruitment exercise is absolutely free!!!

Application Procedure.

Applicants are therefore adviced to carefully choose the category you are eligible for, as multiple applications would lead to disqualifications.

GUARANTORS FORM: It can be done before or after your application, you must download a copy of the Guarantor’s Form. This is to be signed by verifiable references from any two (2) of the following:

  • Traditional Rulers,
  • Magistrate,
  • Local Government Chairman,
  • Heads of Educational Institutions attended,
  • Career Civil Servant not below the rank of Grade Level 12,
  • Police Officer not below the rank of CSP, or
  • Military Officer not below the rank of Lieutenant Colonel.

CLICK TO DOWNLOAD FORM

SPECIALISTS: If you want to apply for a Specialist position, candidates must possess relevant certificates and/or credentials in the required technical discipline. This Certificate have to be equivalent to the minimum entry qualification(s) of the position applied for. While applying, ensure that you click on the Specialists’ Option Button and then Select the appropriate field you qualify for from the list of possible positions.

NOTE:

  • It is the only medium for applying for recruitment into the NPF in 2016.
  • Applicant can submit ONLY ONE application for this exercise.

Click HERE to apply now.

Application for Nigerian Police Recruitment Deadline
May 13, 2016

Goodluck to all diligent applicants. May you find favour before God and Man

Nigeria Police Recruitment 2016 – Apply Here

For more info: 07035441589

NIGERIA POLICE ACADEMY, WUDIL

WRITTEN ENTRANCE EXAMINATION FOR FIRST COURSE OF

THE DEGREE PROGRAMME

TO ORDER FOR THE COMPLETE TEST QUESTIONS NIGERIA POLICE ACADEMY, WRITTEN ENTRANCE EXAMINATION

You can get the complete test questions by paying N1,000 to:

BANK NAME: ZENITH BANK

ACCOUNT NAME: NNAMDI H. ECHEM

ACCOUNT NUMBER: 2081865318

OR
BANK NAME : FIDELITY BANK PLC

ACCOUNT NAME: HENRY NNAMDI ECHEM

ACCOUNT NUMBER: 6160222363

After payment, send the depositors name, and a valid email address to 07035441589 or scharticleshome@gmail.com

As soon as we receive confirmation from our bank, we will send the test questions to your email within 30 minutes. For further information call us on: 07035441589

 

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Effect of Exchange Rate Fluctuations on the Nigeria Economy

The Effect of Exchange Rate Fluctuations on the Nigeria Economy

LITERATURE REVIEW

THEORETICAL CONCEPTS IN EXCHANGE RATE DETERMINATION

The exchange rate as has been stated in the previous chapter is the price of the one currency in terms of other currencies. It is a veritable instrument of economic management and therefore an important macro-economic indicator used in assessing the overall performance of the economy. Since movements in the exchange rate has been discovered to have rippling effects on other economic variables such as interest rate, rate of inflation, etc, it is therefore important for every country as long as it opens its doors to international trade to establish a method or procedure by which its exchange rate {i.e. the price of its currency} would be determined. Exchange rate determination varies from country to country and from one period to another. For example, in a market- friendly economic environment, the exchange rate is expected to respond to force of demand for and supply of foreign exchange. The reverse is the case at the other end for the spectrum when the exchange rate is administratively determined depending on the state of the economy. Other methods of exchange rate determination include the dual and multiple exchange rate regimes etc. In the last three decades, there have been frequent shifts in the exchange rate policies of most economics of the world as dictated by changing economic and financial conditions. Yet in many countries, efforts to achieve viable exchange rate policies are still on as their domestic and international economic environments are still unstable.

In Nigeria, past exchange rate policies have been largely directed towards efforts to restrict the use of foreign exchange at officially or administratively determined rated. However recent policy shifts have reflected a move towards market determined exchange rates, as is the case in most economics of the world. Advocates of the market determined exchange rate system that can also be referred to as the flexible exchange rate highlight a lot of advantages that are accruable to a country if this exchange rate system is adopted (Layi Afolabi 2003: 66). Some of which includes Read More »

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Effect of Poverty on the Academic Performance of Students in Some Selected Secondary Schools

The Effect of Poverty on the Academic Performance of Students in Some Selected Secondary Schools

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter attempts a review of the relevant literature and books that are related to the study, to this end the review will be centered on;

  • The concept of poverty
  • The influence of poverty on education of the students in Nigeria
  • The influence of parental economic status on the students at various levels
  • Home environment and student education.

THE CONCEPT OF POVERTY

Kelvin cleaver (1993) defined poverty as a state of being with noting or litter material with disease and low access to education. That is to say a poor person suffers because he cannot get his or her basic needs. He lives below the minimum standard of living and suffer different incurable diseases of the illumination of the mind. Poverty limit a nation, lack of opportunity of providing the basic needs of the people such as housing, basic education, infrastructure like good road, water, electricity etc he is also of the view that majority of people chose to be poor because they refuse to engage in the skills acquisition activities like clothing and textile, banking decoration and creating the further explains that all these affect rural development, the improvement of the social well being of the rural population. Read More »

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Effect of Quality Service Delivery on Customers Patronage in the Banking Industry of Nigeria

Effect of Quality Service Delivery on Customers Patronage in the Banking Industry of Nigeria (First Bank Plc,)

Looking at it carefully, one expects the banking industry to be dynamic which should change with and adopt to the changing conditions to the economy. Nigerian business to company’s forms of business and the banking mode of operation should also shifting to be more efficient and reliable in terms of services. Apart from the changes in legal status, commercial banking in Nigeria is still basically orthodox except now that the new generation banks have come into being thus threatening their share in the market and showing into faces of the commercial banks their competitive tendencies and supplicated services.

Commercial bank officials should take cognizance of the customers as he people who are behind their continuous stay in this luxurious offices and banking halls.

Banking is a service industry that must market the services they rendered are effectively, these services must be made convenient, accessible and efficient to the patronized, unfortunately this has not been the case with Nigerian banking system until the advent of first generation banks. Read More »

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Impact of Tax on Government Capital Expenditure and Economic Growth in Nigeria

Impact of Tax on Government Capital Expenditure and Economic Growth in Nigeria

Literature Review

Conceptual Framework

Taxation is one of the oldest economic phenomena by which the cost of providing essential services for the generality of a given set of people within a geographical area, is funded. In some countries, taxation is, as old as their history while in others taxation predates their existence. In the earl’ days of civilization, biblical and pre-biblical days: taxes were collected to maintain the kings and queens provide security and fight wars, it could be a direct sub-charge on the citizens of the kingdom or empire! or tributes paid by “conquerors” to show their unflinching loyalty to masters and conquerors. These form of taxes did not necessarily depend on riches or the ability to pay concept. There was, of course no report of accountability except the archaeological findings about he Sumerian civilization of more than 500 \ ago (Legislative Analyst Office, 2001).

Historically, therefore, it can be asserted that the Samerian empire could be the first place; where taxes were levied and accounts for the utilization made. Other than this several empires and kingdom have levied taxes for the purposes stated above without any control or account of utilization. Example include the kingdoms of Israel. Judah, Babylon, Egypt and the Roman Empire, [the primary use of taxes found was continued to the modem times could be seen from history of countries like Britain and US/& particular. Britain levied taxes between 1799 and 1816 to fund the Napoleon war, white USA taxed hi citizens to finance the civil war (1861 and 1863), In most cases, this style of taxation was temporal because the levies were either relaxed or can call upon the realization of the purposes. Economic history has it that permanency of taxes was not common until 1874 when Britain made income lax a permanent levy on its citizens. This was followed by the USA in 1913. This means that it took about 50 years in ho| Britain and USA to sell the idea of regular income lax (U.S Department of Treasury. 2003) Read More »

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