Utilization of Information Communication Technology Tools In Enhancing Students Performance in Building Drawing

Availability and Utilization of Information Communication Technology Tools In Enhancing Students Performance in Building Drawing In Technical College in Ebonyi State


Background to the Study

Building drawing, also known as drafting or draughting, is the act and discipline of composing plans that visually communicate how something functions or has to be constructed. Drafting is the visual language of industry and engineering. A drafter, draftsperson, or draughtsman is a person who makes drawing (Building or otherwise). A professional drafter who makes Building drawings is sometimes called a drafting technician (David 2000.) People who communicate with Building drawings, (those who design and those who are trades people), may use Building standards that define practical symbols, perspectives, units of measurement, notation systems, visual styles, or layout conventions. These enable a drafter to communicate more concisely by using a commonly understood convention. Together, such conventions constitute a visual language, and help to ensure that the drawing is unambiguous and relatively easy to understand (Richard 2004). Read More »

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problem of school dropout encountered by secondary school principals

problem of school dropout encountered by secondary school principals

Background of the Study

The value and functionality of any educational system lie in its ability to actualize the goals of education. The goals of national educational system and indeed national development become like mirage if students drop out of school is not encouraged and instituted (Nwadiani, 2005). Till date, education still remains the best tool for an objective assessment and evaluation of what the government has achieved after a period of time. Hence, any action that undermined education poses a great threat to the validity and reliability of development of the economy. Unfortunately, the problem of school dropouts encountered by secondary schools has become a contemporary shame (Nwadiani, 2005). This is because of the phenomenon of student dropouts that has become endemic in the educational system. Read More »

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Impact of unemployment on economic growth in Nigeria

Impact of unemployment on economic growth in Nigeria (1981-2012)

                                                                     Chapter One


1.1 Background to the study

One of the greatest challenges facing the Nigeria economy is unemployment which has maintained a rising trend over the years. Unemployment is generally seen as a macro-economic problem as well as a socio-economic problem. Unemployment arises as a result of insufficient and non-availability of jobs to correspond with the growing population, even those who are unemployed due to job insecurity and retrenchment of workers. There is employment of factors of production if they are engaged in production (Asoluka and Okezie, 2011). The term unemployment could be used in relation to any of the factors of production. However, with reference to labour, there is unemployment if it is not possible to find job for all those who are eligible and able to work. Labour is said to be underemployed if it is working below capacity or not fully utilized in production (Akintoye, 2008). According to Noko (2013) unemployment in Nigeria is defined as the proportion of labour force that was available for work but did not work in the week proceeding the survey period for at least 39hours. Read More »

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Effects of Nigerian Pidgin English on students of Tertiary Institution

Effects of Nigerian Pidgin English on students of Tertiary Institution

                                                                 CHAPTER 1

Background to the Study:

The term pidgin is used to refer to a language which develops in a situation where speakers of different languages have a need to communicate but do not share a common language. Once a pidgin has emerged, it is generally learned as a second language and used for communication among people who speak differently.

Language is the most creative and unlimited instrument for social communication and it helps us to understand the deep seated social relevance, culture involvement and the human relatedness of language. Having said this, we can therefore agree that pidgin is a language of its own and not just a supplementary tongue as some people see it, since it serves as an unlimited instrument of social communication especially in a multilingual community as Madona University. Read More »

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Economic Crunch on Effective Administration of Secondary Schools

Influence of Economic Crunch on Effective Administration of Secondary Schools (Case Study of Eungu South Local Government Area)

Chapter Two

Review of Related Literature

In this chapter the researcher will review related works of some scholars which will provide a framework for the current study. The review will be done under the following sub-headings:

  • Conceptual framework
  • School administration and economic crunch
  • Causes of economic crunch in Nigeria
  • Managing schools in a period of economic crunch
  • Impact of economic crunch on secondary education in Nigeria
  • Summary of review of related literature

Conceptual Framework

        Komolafe, Fiakpa, Adekoya and Igbikiowudo (2008:25) writing on “Global financial crunch: Nigeria Panics”, opined that economic crunch could be called economic “go-slow”, just like traffic jams which grind vehicular movement to a halt, with attendant man-hour losses, physical and emotional stress. Economic crunch literarily brings down the growth of an economy and when such an economy is the largest in the world, then one needs not wonder why the rest of the world is catching cold. Read More »

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Reducing Truancy among Secondary School Students

Reducing Truancy among Secondary School Students in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State

Chapter Two

Review of Related Literature


The frequent absence from school by students is what is known as truancy. An observation of our school attendance register will reveal that many students keep themselves away from school most of the time. Irregular schools attendance affects the students’ school work adversely. There is no doubt that teachers, parents and government have been making frantic efforts to reduce this misbehaviour (Okafor, 1982). However, the truth remains that this problem has continued to increase. Truants generally, roam the streets, visit where they make funny play, dink, make noise, etc.

Truancy leads to dropping out of school. Introducing of changes in school programmes such as change in school time table, change in sports activities, debate society and other extracurricular activities can help to reduce truancy in secondary schools (Okafor, 1982).

Related literature to this study was organized under the following sub-headings:

  • Teachers’ role towards reducing truancy among secondary school students.
  • Governments (educational administrators) role in reducing truancy in schools.
  • Parents/guardians contributions in reducing truancy in secondary schools.
  • Students’ role in minimizing truancy in secondary schools.

Read More »

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the Impact of Trade Openness on the Nigeria’s economic growth

the Impact of Trade Openness on the Nigeria’s economic growth (1982 – 2013)

                                                      Chapter One


  • Background to the Study

Predominantly, in our world today, nothing can be done without an exchange of some value for value which involves money, ideas, product and technology. As a result of this there is direct effect on the economy of any nation, either positively or negatively. Trade can be traced back to the need for exchange, which evolved from the barter system to the money system. Trade in Nigeria, however, became popular with the advent of the colonial rule that brought in their wares and made Nigerians their middle men (Nicks, 2008). By this, Nigerians understood the need for trade both domestically and internationally.

Foreign trade can be defined as trade across the frontiers, that is, with the rest of the world. It has been argued that it plays a prominent role in promoting economic growth and productivity. Debate has been on-going since several decades ago. Historical validation has revealed that internationally active countries tend to be more productive than countries which only produce for the domestic market. Read More »

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Influence of Educational Qualification of Parents on the Academic Performance of Their Children in Biology

Influence of Educational Qualification of Parents on the Academic Performance of Their Children in Biology in Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State

Chapter Two

Review of Related Literature

In this chapter, related literature was reviewed under the following subheadings.

  • Environmental Influence on Educational Attainment and Performance
  • Parental Influence on Educational Attainment
  • Needs of Parents
  • Contribution of Parents to their Children’s Education
  • Parents Relationship with the School
  • The Role of Parent Towards Educating their Children in Biology
  • Influence of Parental Academic Qualification
  • Some Causes of School Drop-Out
  • Relationship Between Educational Level of Parents and Students Performance
  • Summary of Literature Review

Read More »

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Emergence and Decline of Egbela Cult

Emergence and Decline of Egbela Cult in Edda Afikpo South Local Government Area.

Chapter One

  • Introduction

1.1       Background of the Study

1.2       Statement of Problem

1.3       Purpose of the Study

1.4       Significance of the Study                                                                                           1.5     Scope and Delimitation of the Study

1.6      Limitations of the Study

1.7       Research Question


  • Literature Review

2.1       Theoretical Review

2.2       The Emergence of Egbela cult

2.3 The Significance of the cult to the Edda man

2.4       Initiation into Egbela cult

2.5       The Decline of Egbela cult

2.6       The factors Responsible for the Decline of  Egbela

  • Empirical Review
  • Summary


  • Research methodology
    • Research design             Research instrument

3.3       Method of Data collection

3.4       Area of the Study

3.5       Research Population

3.5       Method of Data Analysis


  • Data Analysis

4.1       The Egbela cult Data presentation


  • Summary

5.1       Findings

5.2       Recommendations

5.3       Conclusion


References     Read More »

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Role of Traditional Rulers in Community Development

Role of Traditional Rulers in Community Development Case of Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State


3.1 The role of Traditional Rulers on the Social Development of Ikwo Local Government area of Ebonyi State:

     The role of the traditional rulers in the development of any given society cannot be disputed. Some national issues have been agitating my mind, and one of them concerns the constitutional roles that are envisaged for our traditional Nigeria order, peace and good government which remain the responsibilities of our royal fathers. It is against this background that this research is being carried out to examine some of the roles of traditional rulers in the overall development of our country specifically the Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

The traditional institution has been thoroughly humiliated over the years 1. The main reason is that it is a conquered institution in most cases. Some of the conquests by the colonialists were followed with heavy primitive expedition. The cases of the once mighty Benin kingdom and Sokoto caliphate brought down about a country ago are prime examples. The colonialists introduced the policy of removing traditional rulers from civic and political relevance by importing the policy of their home country.

The imposition of ceremonial roles on traditional rulers in Nigeria which their Ikwo counterpart are not in isolation and their strict prohibition from participation in partisan politics were  necessary  for the prosecution of colonial rule and even the military era that followed shortly after independence.

It is now becoming very clear that the nation is losing valuable manpower by pretending that traditional rulers are expendable in the administration of our democratic polity. This is the truth. Let us forget about intra-racial and inter-ethnic wars of the time that was not peculiar to us. Even the European countries were not free from these similar debates.  Today the power shift occasioned by western system of government has deprived our tradition al rulers of their primordial roles.

Nnanna noted that the dethronement of traditional rulers was followed up with the denial of their right to benefit from social tributes that helped make their ancestors wealthy on the throne. Their fortunes dipped even further with the dawn of indigenous rule. Today the rulers play little or no active role in revenue generation through taxation. In order to survive, traditional institutions gradually become strong elements in the campaign organizations of ruling politicians in spite of their prohibition from partisan politics. Most of them have resorted to the award of chieftaincy titles as a means of survival and the temptation to give out these titles to all manner of people with money is always there2.

We can restore the dignity of our traditional institution by defining some constitutional roles for the royal fathers. In this vein, they will be given tasks and they will receive rewards in form of regular income (not prehend or tokenistic stipends).

In recognition of the roles which a traditional ruler is expected to play in the administration of their local communities, the colonial government introduced the system of indirect rule which made the Nigeria traditional chiefs the central figure around which the system of administration of local community revolved.

kusamotu highlighted the following as the roles assigned to traditional rulers under the customary laws of different ethnic group  in Nigeria which Ikwo Local government Area is one. They are:

  1. Preservation of public peace
  2. Settlement of disputes among their subjects
  3. Assisting in the collection of taxes and
  4. Acting as the custodian of their subjects and community customs and traditions 3 .

As the custodians of customary laws, while carrying out their customary functions, the traditional rulers must ensure that the discharge of such traditional functions is done in such a way that will not be in breach of the constitution or any statutory provision or in a way repugnant to morality, common law, equity, natural justice of good conscience.

Other roles of traditional rulers include amongst others the following.

  • Presiding over the meetings of elders and minor chieftains in their domains.
  1. Conferment of traditional chieftaincy title on qualified indigenes according to the customary law.
  2. Conferment of honorary chieftaincy titles on deserving indigenes and non-indigenes of their community.
  3. Encouragement of economic development in the areas within their domains.

3.1.1 The Role of traditional Rulers on the cultural development of Ikwo community

  Our culture would appear to be present in two manifestations, which though basically conflicting, yet manage somehow to exist side by side.

Kolade identified these two manifestations of culture as “primordial and constitutional” 4. Our primordial culture is that which existed even before society became conscious of its corporate existence, this forming the context within which the people came to relate to one another from the start of their co-existence. Within the primordial culture, standards of inter-relationship have evolved from the perceived need to respect each other’s interest and rights in order to enjoy peace rather than experience consistent tension and conflict. In its primordial state, culture has built up traditions of communal collaboration where people agree on broad forms of coordination and willingly commit themselves to pattern of relationship.

The distinct feature of this structure is that participants willingly come together after discovering that it is in their best interest to act in concert. This willing participation becomes the basis for regulating inter and intra-group behavior. For example, it promotes situation in which members of Ikwo community band together by agreement on particular days to embark on community development project such a construction of new rural/feeder roads or local bridges using nothing but the resources and efforts freely donated by individuals according to their capacity.

On the other hand, constitutional culture has come about because the process of modernization created formal structures of political relationship and governance by which society could be relatively easily administered. Our experience of colonial governance created situations in which it became fashionable to concentrate resources in the hands of “district officers” who dispensed resources to village communities from central sources. Thus development came to be regarded as something that should come from government at the centre-federal, state or local rather than something growing out of the real needs of the community and the readiness of its members to make a joint positive contribution. The indigenous community was taught to express expectations rather than continue to be maximally productive through self effort.

Modernization has added another role to the aforementioned traditional roles. This is the role of traditional rulers as representative of their communities either as the plaintiffs, being on behalf of their communities or as the defendants defending actions on behalf of their communities. This role emanates as a result of the prime position occupied by the traditional chieftains among the members of the community 5.

Traditional rulers indeed in Ikwo clan and other parts of the country were trusted with the responsibilities of managing community land. The management of community land by traditional rulers also includes the right to allocate land to strangers or new immigrants who decide to settle in Ikwo after attaining certain criteria to that effect.

Describing the traditional chieftaincy holders role as the manager and protector of communal land, late Dr. Elias, in his book Nigeria land law states “the chief as trusted or protector can allocate land as well as revoke its grants can receive tribute or rent and eject from the land for good cause and has a right of reversion as juridical embodiment of the community. He represents his own community in dealing with another community or with the other third parties

3.1.2 The Role of Traditional rulers on political Development of Ikwo Local Government Area       

The importance of chieftaincy institution in the administration of Nigeria was accorded due recognition by the colonial rulers of the country. It was as the result of the recognition of the importance of the institution that prompted the British government to include certain prominent paramount traditional rulers in the enlarged executive council and an advisory and deliberative body known as the Nigerian council in 1914. The importance of the institution was never lost sight of of the composition of the legislative bodies established for Nigeria under the Richard constitution of 1914. Under Richard’s constitution a house of chiefs was established for the western and the northern regions . In addition the two regions had their traditional chiefs as nominated unofficial members to the legislative council. Subsequent constitutions from 1957 down recognized the unique position and importance of chieftaincy institution 5 .

Kusamotu noted, that “in recognition of the importance of chieftaincy institution in Nigeria, the inclusion of a traditional chief from each state of the federation, in the members of council of state created for the country for the country under and by virtue of the provisions of section140 of the constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria, 1979 is guaranteed. The constitutional provisions which state the mode of appointing a chief to the council of state read: One person from each state shall as respects for that state be appointed by the council of chiefs of the state among themselves”.

As a member of council of state, a traditional chief’s duty and those of other members of the council are advisory. At the state level the constitution also allowed each state of the federation to establish state council of chiefs, the constitutional duties and powers of a state council of chief are stated in third schedule part of 1979 constitution.  The council shall have power to advice the governor on any matter relating to customary law or cultural affairs, inter-communal relation and chieftaincy matters.

The council shall also have power to advice the governor whenever required to do so:

  1. The maintenance of public order with the state on any part thereof.
  2. Such other matters as the governor may direct.

With a view to involving traditional chiefs in the administration and development of their chieftaincy, Section 8 of the constitution empower each state house of   assembly to enact a law for the establishment of a traditional council which shall be presided over by a traditional ruler for a local government  area or a group of local government areas.

The traditional council can act only in advisory capacity in carrying out its constitutional duties which are enumerated in the 45 schedule (part 11) of the constitution thus,

  1. Giving general advice to the local council concerned.
  2. Advising the local government concerned on the proposed development plans.
  3. Assisting in the collection of taxes as may be required.
  4. Advising on religious matter where appropriate.
  5. Promoting and advising on art and culture.
  6. Subject to the law of the state dealing with and advising on chieftaincy matters and traditional titles and offices.
  7. Deliberating and expressing opinion to any organization on any other matters which deems to be of importance to the area as a whole or which may be referred to it by the government or other organization
  8. Assisting in the mobilization of human and material resources towards self-reliance, community development and welfare within the area.
  9. Such other functions as the local government council may from time to time refer to it.

Meanwhile, the traditional rulers in Ikwo and indeed every other part, though from the colonial era looked down as ceremonial, still have influential power in terms of political development of the country. They have closer contacts with the local inhabitants, interact with them frequently. They provide even information on security to the law enforcement agencies before they get out of hand. They are the chief mobilizers when it comes to political activities.


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