Mixed Fruit Production Using Fuse Locally Soured Citrus Fruits Orange(Citrus Silences)

Mixed Fruit Production Using Fuse Locally Soured Citrus Fruits Orange (Citrus Silences) Tangerine Citrus Reticulate) Lemon C Groups (Citrus Paradox)

Literature Review

The citrus species are small trees and shrubs of about 3.5 meters in height with simple dark green and glossy leaves which have a joint between the leaf and the petiole. The trees are covered with leaves all year round and are replaced after the bloom by the fruits flowers  are abundant mostly white and fragrant bloom  occurs  between February and April and the period between it. Harvest varies for 8 –17months depending on fruit variety and climate condition. Citrus are subtropical and are rich in vitamin C parthocularly in the pithy white layer or albeds found under the peel citrus fruit have a farfel in taste because of their high water content and the presence of citrus acid and sucrose. The relative amount of these two determines whether the fruit is sharp or sweet to the taste. Orange and grape fruit make up most of the citrus while others are produced in good quantity in floods the gulf state, califomia and Arizoma are the main growing areas. (quantity food purchasing by seeley lake Montana 1975 and lendal H kotscheevar) (food science nutrition and health by Brian A fix and Allan G caner on sixth edition/.

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2.1              CLASSIFICATIONS

Citrus belongs to the family rutaccae subfamily Aurantiodeae, tribe cltrex, subtrible cetrinea Gems of citrus. A member of species are known including sweet orange (citrus sinensus) tanginess (citrus reticulata) Grape fruit (citrus paradist ) lemon (citrus Limon and lime(citrus aurantafolia). Citrus species are utilized in many industries for the production of various brand of juices. Citrus juices are primarily carbohydrates food with small percentage of ether extract and protease, the juice is  also rich is vitamin C  file acid and significant   quantities of other vitamins as well as pectin ( food clenutry by lilian hoagland mayer june 1960 ).


Inorganic mineral element contents of citrus species are clciun 9.0mg/ 100g , lion 0.2mg / 100g, plosplorus 15. 0mgl 100g, magnesium 10.0mg / 10g  potassium 17 .0mgl  100g, soidum  0.5mg 100g, sulphur 6.omg/100g and chlorine 3.0mgl 100g (source from internet)


About too third of the soluble solid in citrus product are composed of sugars and of these one half  is sucrose, one quarter is ghecose and the remaining one – quarter re mainly fructose. In grape fruit the  percentage  of sucrose  is lower  then the  reducing  sugar.


These differ from essential oil in that they are collected and concentrated as an aqueous phase  Essences are obtained  from the volatile components distilled from citrus juices in the early  stage of evaporation and concentration in fraction  column essence contain large quantities  of more volatile compounds such  as ethyl  butyrate or acctaldelyde. Also these are H20 soluble components including alcohols aldehydes and ketones terpense and sesquiterponse are present in small quantities (potter 1978).


The principal acid is citric acid (80 –90% ) of the total aid others are malic tartaric, benzoic succinieguinic oxalic and formic acids.


Juice contains about 0.05% lipids abundant fatty acid are linoleic oleic,palutic steam and Linolence acid grape fruit 0.9 –15% acid, tangerine 0.7 –14 ½ acid lemon juice  3.0-60% acid lime 5.0 –8.0% acid.


These are found in the peel especially lemon  peels pectin form firm jelly insoluble forms are designated protopectin out can be converted topectic acid through hydrolysis.


In citrus fruits there are concentrated pigment in the peels but lesser amounts are distributed throughout the fruit. The pink colour of grape is caused by lycopene and B – carotene which are also prominent within the various citrus  spice  (source internet  ).


The principal enzyme is pectin esterase if inactivated it causes coagulation of suspended matter in citrus juices and bring about rapid sedimentation.

By product of citrus fruits in the citrus industry only 55 – 60 % of the fruit is used for juice and the reminder must be utilized or it becomes a nuisance. Cold pressed peel oil may be recovered and used for flavoring juice sold for use in manufacturing carbonated beverages, candy, baked good, soap and in any other product it flavour is desired  the pressed pulp could be dried and sold as cattle feed.


Nitrogenous compound are present in the extend of 05 –101 or comprise 5- 17 ½  of total solids in orange juice. Most are for anincy, amino acid asparagines alanincy, amino butyric acid arginine, aspadrtic acid, glutamic, glutathiono, histidine, botanic, chorine cysteinc glutamic acid, proline putrescine scrine and  starchydrine. Other nitrogenous compound include octopamine, tyramine n-methyl tyramins synephrine is abundant in tangerine and mandarin juice. (pother 19781).


With its numerous cultivated varieties the sweet orange (citrus sinensiu) constitutes on of the most popular and recognizable fruit crops. Sweet oranges are citrus fruits (citrus sppl which are regarded as high sources of vitamin C  (ascorsic acid ) and other fruits acids. These are hesperidiums because of their fleshness and separable rind. physically citrus fruits consist of forty to fifty percent juice, twenty to  forty percent rinds and twenty to thirty five percent pulp and about five to eight percent surfers and one to two  percent pectic  with  lescer amounts of acids protein. Essential oils and minerals (vanick et al 1981) citrus fruits grow on small evergreen trees many of which depend on nature of the soil and the climate condition of the soil.


Biographers have attempted to define the centers of origin and ancestors of citrus fruit. The multitude of natural hybrids and cultivated varieties including spoutenous mutants obscure the history of citrus. The lack of sufficient description and specimen in addition to the destruction of the original habitats contributed to the puzzlament as well ( cold Schmidt 1996). However the location of origin of the sweet orange is controversial cluna, India, (Burmal and malaysing  are all candidates of the orange history. Domestication of citrus species began at several sites and by 400 D C E (before the connoneral the culture of lemons. Lime and orange was occurring in the indusvalley(solely 1997).

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Is a native of southern chna. It did not reach Europe until the second half of 15th century larger oranges were butt  in Europe in areas too cold for satisfactory  growth Columbus took king orange seed to hantion   his second voyage in 1493 form  there it spread to the west Indian to Mexico in 1518 ad to Floridian 1565. it is now grown thought out  the topics and sub topics but does not do well in very  not areas it is a shallow rooted crop and sulted best to rich well drained loamy soil. It yields 1 –10 boxes per tree with 175 fruits per box. It is fruit is held on tree until fully matured, harvested individually either by chipping off near the calyx with special clippers or by bending and pulling with slight toots (Purse glove 1987).


Tangerine through its history is not well known is a hybrid of orange which are of these type the clemencies and the Dancy are product heavily in flounder and Texas. Califomia producer in lesser quantity.

The history could be trace back from the history of orange which is brought and spread by Columbus in his voltage in 1493 (source from internet).


Lemon citrus lemon which is a hybrids of orange and lime has a greenish yellow skin and is seeded. It also has a sweet and sour taste. As a result of these observed properties it is used in the production of fruit juices.

Most of the lemon is produced by Arizona and California. Florida lemons are apt to be coarse and large and lack some of their full spicy flavor. The main lemon varieties are the Eureka aid Lisbon, the Lisbon is a heavy producer but the Eureka comes on the market at times when prices are higher and so is planted more.

Nutritionally lemon has a medical uses which is know as directed antiscorbute, straight and is used in the relieve of gigantic steatite and inflammation of the tongue. It also has laxative property and aid in the common cold but daily use have been found to erode the enamel of the teeter.


It history could be traced back form Christopher Coloumbus who on his second voyage to Madeira Island and South Africa brought the seed of lemon and citrons to Hait and the Caribben (boost and Rose 1996. by law each Sailor on a Spanish ship headed for the Americans Carried with him a 100 seed of lemon.

These fruit is native to united state, Florida and California’s. it has enjoyed a wide popularity and as an additive has a variety of divers-bed uses.


Lime is a subgenus of citrus C ourantifolia it is one of the world most cultivated of citrus species. It is cultivated well in the tropics (sperqel – Roy and Goldshmidt (19996). Lime is cultivated with June to  September main peak in Florida and the variety is the Tahiti person while Mexican limes come onto market earlier before.

Due to it’s high acidity and flavour it command a better sale and it is of better quality when they are deep green rather than a full ripe yellow. It is used in the producing of sparking fruit juice because of it fleshing property. It peed can be squeezed and used as a cleaning and detoxifying agent. It also had a medicinal used.



Lime history can be traced back from the Caribbean Island and Mexico which are Florida the highest lime production area and sour type. The latter not commercially important. Florida produces a large crop of the sour Tahiti or Persians lime (USDD). The Mexican sour lime comes from warmer areas and has a longer season than other types of sour line.


Grape citrus paradise which is known in some part of the world as citrus Mexican variances Pomelos is bar bados. They are two main winter varieties of grapefruit the mash and Duncan of Florida. They may be either white or pink fleshed. Closely an excelsion. The march is a seedless fruit out ranking all other in quantities produced. The Thompson Pink marsh, pink fleshed varieties can be detected by the slight pink blush on the rind.

Florida and Texas grapfruit are heavy juicy and full flavoured with a thin skin and tender delicate flesh. The Indian river and Rio region produce high quality fruit. Calfomia and Anzona have a bright clear colored fruit with a thicker skin, less juice and less body and fullness of flavor. A Pomelau the fruit from which grape has been dewed (source quantity food purchasing by seeley Montana 1975 first edition.



Grape arrived Florida by 1907 or 1823 Spiegel –Roy and Gold Schmidt (1996). This is formally known as citrus maximal and was later change. These giant citrus called grapefruit is a native to brought by an ancient European and was later distributed to the whole part of the world. Now in triggerman grape is every where and it can be  propagated either by seceding  or budding but the most common one is seeding as can be seen in the IMT fruit garden. Due to its wide use it is now used in different production processes e.g  in making of  join  jellies and syrups.  These pale fellow plant citrus is thinks lanned with a favour agreeable but the shape. The fresh yellow or red has  thick shell andot has a sweet bitter taste and is very juicy. Source non – alcohol is foodservice, beverage hand book  by brain A fox and all an G caneron 6th edition).

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Fruit juices processing is one of the world largest food industries requiring some of the most advanced development in food technology. Most fruit juices unit operation is the same but the equipment  vary defending upon probates of the different fruit. Very fruit Industry different in size nature of peel or ski nature of pulp. Sugar, acid or enzgmatic system  and ease of  bruising. The most satisfactory method of removing the juice from each type varies in  some case  eg in apple fruit only the clear juices needed while  in tomato and peach not only the juice but the pulps is desired while in most citrus and grape juices a small amount of pulp is desired. These has been rapid in the production and consumption of fruit juices in many countries since 1930. The most important juice is tomato followed by citrus juices and Pine apply as apples, pears and berries (source food processing handout).

Simple equipment are available for squeezing out the juice during the production processes added acid, acidtly level arenormally adjusted by the addition of citric acid, either in powder form or by adding lemon juice or lime (Iheknronge 1999).


  1. Enzyme activity – the life of fruits from initiation to maturity is controlled by hormones and enzymes so if fruit for juice production are kept for a long time after harvest before production. there will be bass of vit. C. as a result of the oxidation of vit. C. which will be caused by enzyme which absorb ascorbic acid.
  2. Equipment – The nature of equipment used in the production of fruit juice has an effect on the quality of the product so it is advised that stainless materials should be used during and after the production process. Again equipment for the production process should be sterilized worded to avoid contaminating the whole product.
  3. Environment – The environment and the workers in the production room should be taken into consideration. All the place should be clean and disinfect before and after production and all the workers should cover their hand head and clean lab coat should be worn.

If the production process is done in an unsantized environment, there is very tendency that the juice will be contaminated, which will constitute a health hazard.

  1. Climate – The season of the year also has it own effect on the juice production. Fruits being a seasonal product can reduce the quantity of juice produce when not in season also the condition of the climate has effect on the nature texture taste and the color of fruits will affect the juice production. (Source unpublished food processing handout).


Fruits and some pickles have to be pasteurized in the jar after processing the filled jars with the lids loosely chose are stood in a large pan of boiling water with the water level around the shoulder of the jar. Pasteurization depends on the product.  It is the process of heating the juice to about 150oc or below for a sufficient time to kill the microorganisms which cause spoilage. Observed the heating to about yic was sufficient to prevent fermentation in experimental packs but from 85oc to 90oc was required to accrued cloud stability. Pasteurization of juices can be done in two ways, By heating the juice at low temperature for a long period and by heating the juice at    high temperature for a short time. Pasteurization of citrus juices perform two function, it destroy micro-organisms which causes fermentation and it inactivates cloud producing enzyme pasteurization has been accepted as completely safe for mere than 135 years ago. Today beverages such as fruit juices and been after production are pasteurized and consumed. (jay 1991).

Pasteurization can also be defined as the heat treatment designed to kill vegetative forms of cell life in liquid foods.  The objective of the treatments varies from food but invariably it’s to kill vegetative pathogenic bacteria especially mycobacterium tuberculosis which is responsible for tuberculosis in man.  In been the objective of pasteurization temperature would vary with the desired objective of the food to be treated and the length of time such a food is to be exposed to that particular  temperature. It would also be governed by heat resistance of the spoilage or pathogenic micro-organism required to be killed in the process. Pasteurized foods which show only reasonable extended shelf life are supplemented by other method of preservation (source Awan and okaka 1985).


Fruits form about 41/2 of the world food supply ( kciljour 19871). It that fruits and nuts form integral part of African diet and are consumed as dishes and snacks. Fruits when consumed in good quantities could supply about 91/2 of the calories in the diet. It provide 92% Vit. C, 49% Vit A, and 30% Vit B6 (Annette and Joann 1985). Fruits play many roles eg in dietary fiber, constitvent of many fruits through dietary fibers cannot be digested by man, they have useful roles in providing roughages  that aid digestion (eva 1983). Dietary fibers have been known to reduce cholesterol in the body thus minimizing the risk of card vascular disease caused by high plasma cholesterol level. The major crude fiber in fruits, pectin has an important function of reducing the rate of sugar uptake as well as its role in gastric emptying intestinal regulation and effective diarrhea therapy.

Fruits constitutes of protein although they are low  in primary importance, they serve as components of cytoplasm structures that take part in deterring and maintaining cellular organization including the full components of enzymes introduced in the metabolism during growth and maturation of fruits. Fruits are not very good sources of fat and are usually recommended  as part of weight reducing diets (shieta 1978) but some type of fruits such as avocation peer are known to contain as high as 17 –20% fat.

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Vitamins which is the main contribution of fruits and their production to nutrition is inadequately supplied.

Vitamin A is present in fruits in the form of carotene and can be converted into vitamins in the body the human  liver can store a lsrge quantities of vitamins A fruits such as paw-paw, oil palm and pumpkin provide large quantity of caroten. Vitamin such as thiamin rib oflavin, pant thenic acid are also provided by fruits in trace quantities but have very important biochemical roles in the body.

Mineral element form important constituents of our diet they can also be obtained from fruits though in low quantity.  Minerals have many functions in the body  inducing some constituents of skeletal tissue,  co-factor to  enzyme carnage proteins hormones and other metabolic protein as electrolgles in  the body flied and cell of fruits. When taken in adequate quantities can serve also as a reliable source of mineral element for the consumer fruits also have medicinal uses eg garcina cola ( bitter cola). Is used for treating cough and reducing  the effect of toxic substance, carica papaya (paw-paw) is used as mild laxative which the fruit cocos nucifera (coconut serves as universal antidote for nearly all cases of poisoning.


The edible protein of most type of fresh fruit contains 75-95%  water. Fruits are low in protein but in general contain substantial carbohydrates. The later ma include varying proportions of dextrose fruit use. Sucrose and starch according to the type of fruit and its maturity. The principal acids in fruits are citric tartaric and malic acids. the total acidity often decrease during repining and storage. The constituents of fruits includes cellulose mineral salt, pectin,  gums, tannins pigments and volatiles. Dried fruits constain about 13-22% water, other  main constitute  are  present in proportionately greater amounts than product contain over 60% total sugar.




The fruits used for processing were obtained from the Enugu market garden and I.I.IT constitute of management and technology orchard. Water, citric acid, sugar, vitamin C, calcium lactate and calcium phosphate were obtained from chemical line  abate main market. Other equipment were obtained from main market and from the department of  food technology laboratories I M T Enugu.

Raw material for the simulated product orange fruit (citrus  sinensus)

Tangerine (citrus reticulata)

Grape fruit (citrus paradist)

Lemon (citrus lemon

Lime ( citrus avrantiflia


Citric acid


Calcium phosphate

Calcium lactate


Orange tangerine, grape fruit, lemon and lime used for the juice production were obtained at its optimum maturity stage. They were thoroughly inspected during which those with bruised oils broken skin were removed. The fruit were washed singly with distilled water to remove dirty particles and also to reduce microbial load on them. They were peeled or cut into halve. Peeling was carried out manually using knife to remove the epicarp in order to avoid pectin.

Slicing removing the skin by peeling the fruits was sliced, the seeds removed and each fruit on its own separate container. The essence of slicing is to cut into small pieces to facilitate removal of seed and subsequent milting.

Sleighing – the fruits juices were weighed out in there different proportion.

Juice extraction – The fruits slices were extracted using manual extractor. The extraction was done passing through manual extractor and filtering using filtering machine.

Bottling: – This is completed almost immediately after extraction before pasteurization.

Pasteurization –The essence of pasteurizing of citrus fruit juice is to destroy micro-organism which cause fermentation and to inactivated cloud producing enzymes. The process consists of heating the juices in a water both at the temperature of 65oc for 30 minutes. After which  I remove the bottle from the water bath and allow it to cool  before refrigerating .

Pasteurization is very important in the fruit juice production.


Matured citrus fruit


Cleaning by washing



Juice Extracting






Pasteurization was done after bottling before freezing the fruit juice and the essence of pasteurizing is to kill micro-organism that night be introduce during processing or those that are part of the fruit the pasteurization was done at the temperature of 65oc for 30minutes and those also help to extend the shelf life of the fruit juice. Mild heat treatment is very important in the production of fruit juice.

Mixed Fruit Production Using Fuse Locally Soured Citrus Fruits Orange (Citrus Silences) Tangerine Citrus Reticulate) Lemon C Groups (Citrus Paradox)



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