Leadership Behavior of Technical Secondary School Principal and Productivity in Aba Urban

Leadership Behavior of Technical Secondary School Principal and Productivity in Aba Urban (A Case Study Of Selected Secondary Technical School Principals in Aba Urban)

  • Literature Review

The literature review was discussed under the following beadings:-

  1. Leadership Behaviour
  2. Factors affecting leadership behaviour
  3. Effect of sex and leadership behaviour
  4. Experience , Age and leadership style
  5. Principals and subordinate relationship on leadership behaviour.

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According to research carryout at Ohio State University in 1946, leadership behaviour was seen as the behaviour of an individual when directing the activities of a group towards a good to the description of leaders behaviour to two dimension 1- initiating structures and  consideration.

Initiating structure seems to be task oriented. This dimension emphasis the needs of the individual within the organization. Hence the leadership behaviour of school principals have a long way in affecting school administration.

The term “leadership” is commonly used and has many definition.  Its concept according to Onwuemezu (1982) within an organization is difficult to define. To some people a leader may be perceived as a servant. Adesima (1984) sees a leader as a person who can initiate action among people, guide activities and unite efforts toward common goal. Leadership is seen as a matter of position. A status does not give leadership although it may interfer with the person capable of exercising leadership for instance school supervisors bursars, and lawyer to school board are status position, they have no direct authority or leadership position; they only act as advisers, coordinators and helpers to the people in the executive position.


Any business enterprise must build a free team and join individual effort in a common or group effort. Each member of the enterprise contributes differently but they all work towards common goal. Their effort must be in the same dissection and to various contributions must be able to produce a whole without much gap and friction. This is because where there exist gap and friction, unnecessary duplication of effort arises, therefore leadership style may one major aspect that affect leadership behaviour.

According to lippit and white (1987) there are three leadership styles namely Autocratic type of leadership is characterized by a cerdralised decision making there, the leader, assigns tasks to the subordinate without consulting them and he expect them to accepts it without questioning. In agreement to this spance and khorant (1985) added that the authocratic leader assumes that he knows all the solution.

The democratic style of leadership is associated with leadership behaviour based on democratic principle, that is of the  people, by the people and for the people.

Everson (1985) discussing what he calls the democratic style, he highlighted four characteristics essential to it. They include an affirm ation of the individual, the declarations that in most  profound sense that all men are created equally that is the equality of all men, the belief that political and civil liberty are the only dependable guidance on the individual equality and a foundation of individual responsibility. This statement about democracy shows that the  democratic leader must organize his leadership behaviour so as to recognize and  utilize the right and the abilities of the individual member of the group to  achieve organization goal.

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The larsser – faire leadership style grants complete freedom of action to group members without the leader interference or participation. Here, the  primary role of the leader is to provide support, services such as materials necessary and to participate only when requested by the group.

Studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of democratic autocratic and laisser faire style of leadership on academic achievement of student. Stogill (1984) concluded that the evidence is strong that democratic leadership is positively related to group member’s satisfaction which is good for high productivity. Knezerich (1985) declared a fourth leadership style which he called manipulative style. In this style, desires are made known in advance and then committee are appointed. The committee members are empowered to arrive at a decision which then determines what step the leader should follow. The group members not only follow order but also take full responsibility for creating orders as well. One can see that leadership style of any leader affects its behaviour and the general management of the firm and administration.


Bernarad (1988) sees the process of making organizational decision as the essence of the executive function. Is the heard of administration and a judgment made relative to a state of affaires that influence the course of action that follows and in addition that acts necessarily to put the decision into effect.

Nwaogwugwu (1987) points out that when decision making is  centralized in the hands of superiors, initiative is reduced, conflict and hostility arises among members and individuals identify with the organization to  a less degree. In the field of education, the  leadership of the with the staff is clearly shown in the teacher principal participation in the decision making process. Increased teacher principal participation in areas directly affecting their welfare  is not only desired by teachers but leads to effective and high productivity and job satisfaction.

Ezeocha (1985) Observed that effective running of the school involves collective decision making and implementation at various levels.


Leadership behaviour of principals in secondary schools could lead to mal-administration. The trait inherent or possessed of a principal or a leader affects the effectiveness and productiveness of administration.

Crowley (1980) declared that leadership trait is the chief exponents that world contribute somehow to the success of anything no where it is found. That is to say despite the conservative theories which a leader may adopt that the effective int4erpretation of leadership approach depends on the leaders ingenuity.

It is assumed that certain traits or in born qualities such as physical strength, intelligence and fr4ndliness are essential for leaders. One of the studies conducted by Crowley (1989) with 112 students criminals from psychological test and it was found that they had the following traits in common; self confidence, speed in making a decision and finality.

Myers (1984) analyzed more than hundred studies. The following are summary of some of the conclusion concerning the relationship of personality traits to leadership:-

  1. No physical characteristic is significantly related to leadership.
  2. Although leaders tend to be stghthy higher in intelligence than the group of which there is no significant relationship between intelligence and leadership.
  3. The following characteristics correlated significantly with leadership initiative, co-operation, originality, judgment, popularity and communication skills.

Myers study indicates that the importance of specific characteristics of leaders differs according to the traits they acquire.

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According to Ukeje (1992), age and experience affect leadership behaviour. Hence one who would be the principal of a secondary technical school ought to have a technical teaching j experience to get acquainted with areas of teaching profession which only experience can give.

Therefore according to Ukeje, experience have to do with number of years involved in teaching practice, school administration etc. this can be said to be correct because for one to have experience, one must first under go a framing that will lead him or her to know the job well.


 An important fact about all comparison among human group is that individual differences within each group are far greater that average differences between groups.

Since the beginning of the twentieth century, sex difference have been the subject of continuous research. At the beginning, the feminist movement generated interest in the question of whether the  intelligence of women are or not equal to that of men.

In this review of literature, it quite interesting to understand that there are certain leadership behaviour expected of leader. In other words, when things are not going the way they are expected to go, it is sensed that something must be wrong with leadership behaviour.

Ukeje (1992) maintained that in selection of principals for secondary schools. Factors like sex, age, marital status, intelligence, experience should be borate in mind but should not be given under weight as finding of research in all the factor have not yet attained universal accepted validity and  reliability.



In order to achieve the stated objectives, a number of steps were taken and it forms the methodological approach for this study. The methodology of this study are composed into the following:-

  1. Data Requirement
  2. Source of data required
  3. Population of the study
  4. Sampling procedure
  5. Method of data presentation

Data are information that are needed to carry out this study. The table below show the data required in respect of the questions adduced for this research.

S/N Research Question Data Required
1 What are the leadership style of principals of secondary technical schools in Aba urban Leadership style of principals
2 Does the leadership style of principal of technical school affect their relationship with staff and learning  environment (1)   Relationship between staff and principal

(2)   Condition of learning environment

3. Does Age and experience affect leadership style of principal in technical school (1)   what is the age of the principals

(2)  years of experience

4 Does leadership trait affect the productivity of staff in technical school  (1)  Level of productivity among staff

(2)  student performance.


Relevant data were required in achieving the stated objectives and this is an important thing.

For the purpose of this study, two sources of data were required and they are the primary and secondary data.

The primary data consist of direct interview of individual in the study area, questionnaire administration and field observation. The researcher used questionnaire to elicit information from the teacher who form the population of the study. There were 16 questions in the questionnaire. The responses were structured on a four point rating scale of “strongly Agree”, “Agree, “Disagree” and “strongly disagree”. Respondents were requested to tick to one rating according to their perception of opinion

Direct interview involved the interview of those that helped in determining the leadership behaviour of principals in the selected schools. Consequently. The interview were done by the research and were not documented as in the questionnaire.

Field observation were conducted at the various locations of the secondary technical schools. It was done in order to help the researcher have on spot assessment of the level of productivity among staff and also the condition of the learning environment. Secondary data involved the study of works of past researchers formals and official report. This goes along way to help the researcher in achieving the aim of the study.

S/N Data Required Sources
1 No of technical schools Primary source  :  Field
2 Leadership style of principal of technical schools Primary source  :  Field
3 Relationship between staff and principal Primary source  :  Field
4 Condition of learning environment Primary source

survey              :  Field

5 Age of principals Primary sources :  Field
6 Years of experience Primary source   :  Field
7 Level of productivity among staff and student Primary source

Survey               :  Field


The population of the study consist of teachers in the four selected secondary technical school in Aba urban. 10 teachers were selected from each of the school making it 40 which is the population of the study. This was done in order to save time and resources in carrying out the study.


In order to administer the questions, it were to be uneconomical and time consuming if 100% survey coverage were carried out, as a result a sample technique were adopted to beat time and save resources. The technique adopted were for the various areas data were required.  S

The staff of the 4 selected schools obtain information concerning the leadership behaviour because they are in a better position to give an in sight concerning the prevailing leadership behaviour of the principal. Hence a simple random sample of 10 teachers were questioned from each school to make a total of 40 questionnaire. This was done in order to reduce cost and also save time.


The data collected were analyzed and put in a simpler form that can be easily understood. The techniques that the researcher used in presenting the data are table etc.

Leadership Behavior of Technical Secondary School Principal and Productivity in Aba Urban (A Case Study Of Selected Secondary Technical School Principals in Aba Urban)


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