Isolation and Characterization of Microorganisms from Stored Pap (Ogi)

Isolation and Characterization of Microorganisms from Stored Pap (Ogi)

Literature Review

2.1     Origin of Maize Pap

Cereals are the fruits of cultivated grassed which are members of the monocotyledonous family graninae (Kent 1978).  The principal crops include wheat, maize, rice, sorghum, Oats, rye millet and barley.  Nutritively, cereals belong to the incomplete protein group.  This is because they are carbohydrate based foods and contain very little amount of protein compared their carbohydrate contents.  Cereals grain are rich in the B-group vitamins in the different parts of the different cereals varies considerably (Okaka 1997).  Chemically, the native grain of common cereals consists of carbohydrates, protein, non-protein, nitrogenous compounds, fats, minerals, water with small amount of vitamins and enzymes

Maize grains supply food for a large proportion of the population in  west Africa particularly in Nigeria.  It is the component and most important grain crop of the tropical world most important grain crop of the tropical world and it is eaten in different forms.

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Anyinsanya (1978) reported that the maize grain owns its origin to Africa.  The grain thrives in most of the southern parts of west Africa.  The maize grain species varies from one another both in size and in colour.  Some use white in colour while others are yellow or dark in colour (Okaka 1997).


          The maize grain is large than the grains of other cereals.  It posses a broad apex and a narrow base.  The starchy endosperm, germ and large scutellum are contained within a hull comprising prikarp and testa.  The endosperm is  of two types, the soft endosperm which consist mainly of starch granules and the horny endosperm which is mainly ghiten.  One starchy granules are tightly embedded in the protein matrix.


SOURCE: Okara, et al 1997: cereals and Legumes


          Chemical like other grains of common cereals, the maize grains consists of carbohydrate, protein, non-protenuous nitrogen compounds, fats, minerals, water with small amount of vitamins and enzymes.  Water with small amount of vitamins and enzymes.  However, they are rich in  the B-groups vitamins and enzymes.  However, they are rich in the B-groups vitamins.  The carbohydrate fraction consists principally of starch but includes other compounds like cellulose, hemicellulose, pentosans, dextrins and sugars.  The maize grain contains crude fibre, dietary fibre and mineral  matters in smaller amount than the husked cereal grains (Rice, Oats and bareley).  The maize grain containing 4-6% lipid and in addition contain other mineral like potassium, magnesium and other mineral like potassium, magnesium and calcium.  Other minor element include zinc, iron and manganese (Okaka 1997).

Maize is deficient in the vitamin, niacin.  It contains a low amount of protein (zein) which is deficient in lysin and trytophan.  However maize glutelin, another fraction of maize protein is complete in essential amino acids.  But  when considered as a whole, the protein of maize is skill low in lysin, very low in tryptophan but reasonably fair in sulphur containing amino acid.  It is excessively high in lencin and high in the aromatic amono acids.  Although, maize contains macin, most of it occurs in a bound form as macytin which is biologically unavailable and renders the maize deficient in macin.

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Table 1: The percentage chemical composition of maize grain
carbohydrate 65-85
protein 9-10
moisture 12-15
Lipid 4-6%
fat 3-5
Fibre 2-3
Ash 3

Source” Okaka J.C. et al 1991:


          The maize grain is the commonest cereal used to produce pap.  It is the major raw materials used in producing of wearing food both conventionally and traditionally. Pap (ogi) is a staple food of Nigeria and it is the most commonest and most popular wearing foods in this part of the world. It is used to wear children locally.  It is usually produced from the fermentation of maize or other cereals and the colour depends on the cereal used.  In the traditional way of producing “Pap” what is called wild fermentation take place, unlike the scientific method where the necessary and effective micro-organisms are controlled and used to achieve fermentation. hTheuse of cereals in wearing foods production especially maize is probably due to its availability and it is widely consumed when fermented.  Infants are able to digest it without much trouble (Clukoye et al 1993).  In producing pap traditionally, the following steps are followed.  The grains are sorted, steeped in water for 1-3 days and wet milled, sieved, allowed to settle and the sediment put in sac or doth bag to de-water, pap is usually market as wet cakes.  Apart from pap production, maize grains are used in production of so many other African fermented foods, e.g Kenkey, maize beer, Agidi, maize flour, Koga etc.

However, cereals being carbohydrate based foods, are not nutritively balanced, therefore, it becomes lower values of riboflavin and niacin than that made with maize and  A. Cloacae.  In any case the changes were small and smaller of compared with whole maize, whereas in comparison with degermed maize, the pap (Ogi) product contained more riboflavin and niacin. Akinrele (1970) and Banigo and muller (1972) reported on the carboxylic acids in pap and found lactic acid in greatest concentration 10.55 percent) fellowed by acetic acid (0.09 percent) and smaller amount of butyric acid.

The later investigations suggested level of 0.65% for lactic acid and 0.11% for acetic acid, responsible for the sour taste, as goals for flavour evaluations.  Banigo, de man and Duitschever (1974) reported on the proximate composition of Pap (ogi) made from common whole maize which was uncooked and freeze dried or cooked and freeze dried after fermentation.  Changes were relatively small in all major nutrients, with a slight increase in fibre and a decrease in ash content when compared with whole maize.  These  authors also reported on amino acid content; they found no differences between maize flour and pap (Ogi) for all amino including the essential ones.  The pap samples, how ever, had about twice the amount of service and somewhat higher values for glutanic acid.  Adeniyi and pottes (1978) reported that pap processing did not decrease  the protein content of maize, but total and available lysine were signicantly reduced.  On the other hand, trypophan levels were more stable and in two samples increased probably because of fermentation.  These authors also found an increased necessary, that this cereal food are complemented with other food substances to make balanced.

Some of the blend being used today  include maize/groundnut, maize/crayfish, maize/soy-bean, (Banigo et al 1972).  Apart  from the fact that cereals are carbohydrate based; studies have shown that children feed with “Pap” made from maize necessary for children to form cereals be complemented so that they meet the required nutritional needs for childre.

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          The process of fermenting maize to produce pap(ogi) not only removes parts of the maize Kernel such as the seed –coat and the germ, but also involves washing, sieving and decanting all of which induce changes in the chemical.  Composition and nutritive value of the final product.  Akinrele (1970) reported on specific nutrients of a number of pap samples produced in different ways. Unfermented and fermented with Aenobacter  Cloacae,  Lactobacillis plantarum and a mixture of the two bacteria. He compared the values found with those from the ratio of amino nitrogen to total nitroen, the author reported that protein are degraded to a very small amount by many bacterial species.  When compared with the unfermented pap (ogi), Aerobacter cloacea appeared to synthesize more riboflavin and niacin which did not take place with L. Plantarum.  Traditionally produced pap had more thiamire and slightly in neutral detergent fibre and ash but no change in ligrin.  Akingbola et al (1981) found a decrease in protein, either extract, ash and crude fibre in pap as compared with maize that is processed as a whole grain or dry milled.


          Nutritional evaluations of pap (ogi) are not readily available.  Adeniyi and potter (1978) found a substantial decrease in protein quality of drumdried common maize pap which they ascribed to the drying process.  These same authors reported significant losses in lysine .  several authors have more recently tested maize and reported that fermentation before storage improved the nutritional quality of the product.  Akinrele and Bassi-(1967) found net protein utilization, protein efficiency raon and biological value of pap inferior to those values in whole maize, even though some increase in thiamine and niacin was obtained.

It has been indicated that some of the microorganisms responsible for pap fermentation such as Enterobacter Cloacea and L. Plantorum, use some of the amino acid for growth. This  together with the elimination of the germs from kernels explains the very low protein quality of Pap (ogi) and similarly produced products.  However, there are some exceptions, such as kenkey and pozol both products in which the maize is fermented with the germ. Although protein quality values are not available for kenkey, Cravioto et al (1955) found higher levels of tryptophan and available lysine which suggested higher protein quality than in raw maize or lime-treated maize.  More recently, Bassir (unpublished) found the fermented product to be higher in protein quality than raw maize but not different in quality from lime – cooked dough.


          The microorganisms associated with the storage of pap (ogi) were investigated by Akinerele 91970).  They include cephalosporium, Aspergillus, Penicillium,  Corynebacterium spp, Aerobacter cloacee and lactobacillus planerum among others.  Okafor (1979) isolated Pediococcus, pentosaceus and candida species in pap (ogi). During steeping, the pH of the subsequent souring of the maize mash by L. Plantarium any yeast..  in a related study on fermented corn meal, fields et al (1981) identified two species of lactobacillus and pediococeus acidilactic and the two species of lactobacillus are L fermentum and L cellobiosus, in fermented corn meal mixed with water at 37c.  The development of flavour characteristics of Pap (ogi) has been attributed to carboxylic acids the most important being lactic acid and butyric acid (Banigo and Muller (1972).

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The mould that are associated with the surface micro flora of stored pap (Ogi) are cephalosporium Rhizopus, Oospora, cercospora, fusarium, A spergillus and pencillium.  The problems associated with pap (ogi) prepared using the traditional method are irregularity flavour and loss of nutrients (Van veen and sterinkrans 1990).  These may be attributed to the activities of undesirable microorganisms and differences in the processing conditions utilized.  The shelf life of pap (Ogi) is about 30 hours and can be extended through refrigeration.




The sample of maize grains was collected from Ogbete main market Enugu, in a sterile container and was transferred to the laboratory, (i.e. the microbiology laboratory of the institute of management and technology Enugu), Where the examination was carried out.


          The apparati used include the autoclave, incubator, microscope, sterile, beakrs, pipette, petri-dishes, bunsen Burner, slides, test tubes with rack, weighing balance, filter paper, nylon sieve biyou bottles, maize grains, distilled water, methylated spirit and cotton wool.


          The media used include nutrient agar, malt extract agar and motility agar (the composition of the media used are indicated in Appendix I).  The reagents include 1% peptone water, normal saline, hygol’s iodine, Acetone alcohol, satramin, crystal violet and distiled water.


The pap was prepared using the traditional method described by Banigi (1974). Maize grains was picked to remove dirt and was transported into a beaker. The maize was steeped in distilled water for 72 hours.  The softened grain was wet milled using a manual grinder which had been previously sterilized using 70% ethanol.  The ground material was then slurred with water in a plastic bowl and then passed through a five nylon sieve.  The chaff was discarded while the filter was allowed to sediment to obtain the starch paste (pap).  The pap was divided into two portions, put in plastic bowls and stored for 7 days at room temperature.  The samples were immersed in water and labelled pap I and pap II.  Pap I was stored without changing the water while the water in sample pap II was changed by replacing with water

Isolation and Characterization of Microorganisms from Stored Pap (Ogi)


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