Impact of Taxation as an Aid to Economics Development

Impact of Taxation as an Aid to Economics Development in Edo State. A Case Study of Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State

Review of Related Literature

  • Introduction

There are several literature by different authors, scholars and researchers on Taxation as source of government revenue and its impact on the Edo state economy many of them have covered all its ramifications while some have effectively appraised the proscem of tax administrator in Nigeria.  Despite these appreciable and commendable efforts, it should be noted that much still need to be to really quantity the contributions of taxes to the growth and development Edo state.

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Tax is a compulsory payment made by individuals and firms to the government.  Ola (198:55) defined taxation as a compulsory financial contribution to government by individual and corporate bodies —- it is a form of withdrawal by government for a particular economic purpose. T he national accountant, defined taxation a levying by public authorities on citizen within their tax jurisdictions, for the purpose of obtaining compulsory payment, to meet financial social and economic goals of the authorities.


Defined indirect tax as taxes levied on expenditure on goods and services.  On the other hand Agyer (1983) says that indirect tax is a tax imposed indirectly on tax payer’s income. Taxes changeable to indirect taxes includes.


This is effectively a retail sale tax and in and is an indirect form of taxation based on the consumption on certain good and services.  VAT” is collected at different stages of production process and on the added value at each stage of consumption.  It came into operation to Nigeria courtesy as VAT decree of 1993, which became effect 19993, which became effective from 1st January 1994.  The introduction of VAT replaced the sales Tax decree of 1986.

According to professor Aluko, “VAT” is a consumption tax.  If is equitable because the more you consume, the more you pay — services exempted from VAT are the one, that touches the directly and they include pharmaceutical and medical products, basic food items, commercial vehicles and their spare parts, books and educational material and so, on it is a good tax.  Accountant (Volume 6 NO5 June/July 1996).  From the above, taxation could be said to mean a compulsory payment to the government by every taxable individual and corporate bodies.


According to Agye: (1983-73) tax can be basically divided into direct and indirect taxes.

  1. Direct Tax: David Begg (1984-284) defined direct tax as taxes levied on individual income on earnings from labour, rents, dividends and interest.  A common features of this types of tax is that it is levied according to the ability to pay that is “pay as you earn” (PAYE).

Direct Taxes are made up of the following according to O. Teriba (1976: 178).

  1. Income tax: This is tax changed an earning from ways, salaries, rent, interest, premium etc. It in normally changed progressively. After deducting all the tax relief, the reminder becomes the taxable income.
  2. Poll Tax: A poll tax is imposed at a flat rate per head of population or among a group of people. This types of taxation is employed where enough data do not exist to determine the actual income of the tax payer.  It is a regressive tax because no matter what the size of a person’s income everyone has to pay the amount.

4.Company Tax: David Begg (1984:284) assents that companies pay corporation tax calculated on their taxable profits after allowance for interest payment and depreciation.  Company tax is charged progressively, i.e the higher the profits the greater the tax companies are taxed under the provision of the companies income tax act (1961) and its various amendments.

  1. Capital Tax: O Terisa (1976:180) states that “capital taxes are imposed on property and other capital assets from instance, when a person dies his assets are subject to capita l tax, in this case the term death duty or estate duty is used.
  2. Capital Gams Tax: This tax is charged on gains in value (profit) accruing to any company or individual on the disposal of assets e.g. land. This system of tax was introduced in Nigeria in 1967. Under the capital gains tax decree 44 of 1967 as amended.  Therefore, for taxation to make the desired impact on the economic development of Nigeria given is being a major source of government revenue the following Acts were enacted to regulate its operations
  • The joint tax management act (ITMA) 1976.
  • The joint tax board (JTB)
  • Company income tax act (ITA (1979)
  • Value added tax act (VAT) 1993
  • Petroleum profit tax act (ITMA)
  1. Income Tax Management Act (ITMA)

This act regulate personal income tax through out the federation.  It lays down the procedures to determine the assessable income of an individuals.  It comes into operation in 1961.

  1. Joint Tax Board

This is constituted under sections 27 of ITMA, (1961) and 78 of the CITA, (1979).  Their duty is to promote Uniformity both in the application of ITMA (1961) and to the incidence of income tax on individuals throughout the country.  It also advises the federal government on matters relating to amendments of tax Act, double relief arrangement and rates of capital allowances.

  1. Company Income Tax Act CITA (1979)

This act regulates the assessment and collection procedure for all corporate bodies. For instance the assessment of company based on actual year basis (AYB) or on preceding year Basis (PYB).

  1. Capital Transfer tax (1979

This Act regulate the assessing and collection of capital transfer tax, provides for these capital assets exempted form capital transfer tax and provision for quick succession relief rate on a deceased property.

  1. Capital Gain Tax Act (1967)

It makes provision for the assessment of capital gains tax with regard to “Allowance expenses from net proceeds of sale” and treatment of loss accruing from the disposal of an assets and list of changeable asset.

  1. Value Added tax (1993)

Introduced to replace sales tax decree of 1986 with duty to specifying vatable items and non-vatable items.  Sit is a good tax made to be relatively easy to administer and difficult to evade.

  1. Petroleum Profit Tax Act 1959

This act was enacted in 1959 but amended to 1979 and specifies how profit from petroleum will be taxed; those engaged in the production of crude oil and transportation of oil (Bunkey); those to be changed and those not to be changed.


The 1998 budget of the federal republic of Nigeria provided the following tax relief:

  1. PERSONAL ALLOWANCE: N5000 + 20% of earned income. As of the year 2000, amendment was made  but not ye5 effective.
  2. CHILDREN ALLOWANCE: N2500 per child up to maximum of four children
  3. DEPENDENT RELATIVE ALLOWANCE: N2000 per dependent, up to maximum number of 2.
  4. DISABLED ALLOWANCE: N2000 or 2% of total income that ever is less
  5. LIFE ASSURANCE POLICY ALLOWANCE: Total premium paid per year based on preceding year basin (PYB).


With effect from 1998

1st 20,000             5%

Next 20,000                   10%

Next 40,000                   15%

Next 40,000                   20%

Over 120,000       25%

Income as at 2000, amendment was made but has not come ato effect

Below is the amendment

1st 30,000             5%

Next 30,000                   10%

Next 50,000                   15%

Next 50,000                   20%

Over 160,000       25%

Sales Tax: This is the tax imposed on the sales as a commodity collected only at the point of final sale to the consumer.  The rate as tax varies according to the commodity sold. Example includes petrol and agricultural export produce. O Teriba (1976:180).  VAT has replaced this.

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Withholding Tax: This is  a tax changed on investment income namely rents, interest, royalties and dividends presently it in changed at the off.

Import Tax: Import taxes are paid on goods brought into a country.  Import duties are change for the folowing persons.  To yield

Excise Taxes: Excise duties are taxes on some goods manufactured within a country.  Hoods on which duties are usually paid are beer, petrol, cigarettes etc.  in Nigeria excise duties were first levied on cigarettes in 1939, on beer in 1949 and on many more goods from 1960


The incidence of a tax according to David Begg Measures the final tax burden on different people and who ultimately pays the tax.  “O Teriba” refer tax incidence as the effect and where the burden of if final rest.  He differentiated between formal and effective incidence of a tax.  According to him formal incidence tells us about the initial effects of a tax on the tax object (income, goods, etc).  While the effective incidence of a tax tells us how the ultimate (final) burden of a tax was met.


  1. Progressive Taxes: A tax is progressive if its rate increase as the size of income or stock of wealth which I being taxed increase. Here, the burden of a progressive income tax falls on those who earn higher income
  2. Regressive Taxes: A regressive tax takes a smaller part of incomes as incomes increases, that is as income increase the tax rate decreases for instance individual Y and Z earn N100 and N400 respectively if Y pays N10 as tax, his tax rate is N10%. If Z pays N20 as tax, his tax rate is 2.5%.  Y pays higher percentage of his income (5%) then Z (2.5%).  Such  a tax system is said to be regressive.
  3. Proportional taxes: A tax is proportional when the rich pay more than the poor in Absolute terms (in actual amounts). But all tax papers, rich and poor are made to surrender the same percentage of their income in tax payments.


Kind of Tax Rate of tax in % Mr. X N of tax N1000 net of income Rate of tax in % Mr Z N of tax N4000 net income
Progressive (rate of Tax rises as income rises). 10% 100 900 20% 800 3200
Regressive (rate higher for lower incomes) 10% 100 900 5% 200 3800
Proportional (rate the same for all income) 10% 100 900 10% 400 3600


Source: certificate economics for west Africa by O. Teriba page 176.


According to Adam Smith “ the wealth of Nation “ 1776, he defined principle of taxation as rules reasons, qualities and conditions that i.e. behind a particular tax on tax system.  He gets out four rules of taxation – Equality, Economy, certainty and convenience.

  1. EQUALITY: this does not mean that each t ax payer must pay the same amount. It means that two men earning N50,000 a year and having the same responsibilities (children etc) should pay the same income tax “equality this means also that people should pay taxes according to their ability to pay progressive taxation satisfies this principles.
  2. ECONOMY: A good tax is one, which is economical to collect. Compared with the tax revenue from a particular tax, the cost of collecting it should be smaller than the total tax revenue.
  3. CERTAINTLY: taxpayers should be fully informed about taxes and should be able to work out their tax dues with certainty. The rate of tax and hour to calculate the amount to be paid should be people to stated.  Certainty makes it difficult for people to easily avoid  or evade paying taxes.
  4. CONVENIENCE: the time and method as payment of taxes should be convenient for tax payers. The pay-as-you-earn (PAYE) system of tax collection as convenient because the tax is collected monthly or weekly by the employee receives his payment (income).

Each tax has two elements; the tax base and the tax rate. O Teriba (1976:175).

  1. The tax base: the tax base is the object, which is taxed. The usual objects are personal incomes, company profits and the value of property goods for sale, export and imports.
  2. The tax rate: the rate is the amount of the tax base, which has to be paid in tax. Tax rate could be specific or changed at “advalorem” if changed at “specific” it means that a fixed sum is paid but if changed on the price of a commodity is paid.
  3. Raising of revenue to finance government expenditure programmes.

Tax plays on important role in Nigeria society.  It is a strong force for economic development in the country forms the pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial eras.

It is by far the most significant source of revenue for modern government hence recent call for increase in taxation.

Role as used in the study a sit relates to tax according to Oxford dictionary is a part played or the contribution as taxation.  Revenue generated from tax can be used by the government to carry out its expenditure programmes which includes: Defense, social and infrastructural services general administration etc.  for government to effectively carry out these obligations, a lot of revenue will be require.  Revenue generated from oil and non-oil source cannot be enough to execute these enormous task, hence tax revenue which is believed to be the most significant source of revenue to the government, Rabul, (1981:2)

  1. Strongly agree with this in his statement “A great majority of Federal and state government” taxes are imposed primary for the purpose of raising revenue to finance government expenditure:  This reproves why government in its annual budgets limits the level of expenditure to commensurate with the projected revenue which tax plays a significant role.  In essence, what taxes meant to the government to exactly what capital and gains ae tyo individual and business organizations.
  2. ACTING AS INSTRUMENT OF FISCAL: O Teriba (1976;187) traced the origin of fiscal policy to “the treasury of Ancient Rome which was called “Fisc” from it we get word “Fiscal” which means something concerning public revenue.  By definition, fiscal policy is that part of government policy which is concerned with raising revenue through taxation and others means and  deciding on the level and pattern of expenditure.

“O Teriba continued by saying assuming that total demand for goods and services is low as well as the level of employment and production.  In this situation the government may plan for a deficit budget, it can do this through reducing taxes.  This is because if people and firms pay less tax, there will be more money available to spend and total demand will go up.


He further asserts that if total spending is much higher than the supply as goods as services, prices will tend to rise (inflation).  The government may try to reduce total demand and thereby economic activity by increasing taxes.  This is because it is generally easier for the government to make tax changes then to reduce its expenditure, especially when it involves long-term investments and socially desirable public service.


Taxes often aim to redistribute income.  A progressive income tax, which takes more from those with higher income thereby reducing the unequal income among people satisfies these roles of taxes.  The government therefore, spreads tax revenue on service that includes health, education, social welfare etc.  Which often benefit low-income group more than those with higher incomes.  Tax system is this a very powerful and effective device for ensuring a more equal distribution of income.  On the other hand, equitable distribution of wealth is very essential in order to maintain the desired level of economic stability.  This is achieved through redistribution of wealth concentration on high-income earners.

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The foreign trade of a country is controlled and protected by the government in order to safeguard the economy.  Taxes on import and export affect the balance of payments and may affect production at home.  High taxes on imports reduce or prevent the import of a particular manufactured good so that the industries (infant industries) can become property established.  Conversely, government encourages exports by giving tax subsides/relief to producers especially in the areas of Agriculture and industries.  Being able to produce it basic needs and not relying on foreign supplies make, a country self-reliant.  This in turn raises enough revenue to the government, keeps income and employment at a high level with a positive result of correcting on unfavourable balance payment.



The due administration of the Nigeria tax system in under the care and Management of the Federal Board of inland revenue services (FBIRS) who may do all such things as it deemed necessary and expedient to assess to tax the profit of any company accruing in, derived from brought into or received in Nigeria. We shall examine this under the following heading.  The structure ad composition of the Board, Board meeting duties and functions of the Board; the objectives of tax administration and legal backing to tax administration.


According to Mr Wilon Ani (out lecturer on taxation, in his material) the Federal Board of Inland Revenue services is constituted under section (1) of the company’s income tax act 1979 (ITA) as amended and retained as Cap 60 in the laws of the federation. 1990.  Section 2 provides that the members of the boards shall consist of:

  1. The chairman, who shall be the director of the Federal Inland Revenue Department.
  2. Four deputy directors of the Federal Inland Revenue Department.
  3. The most senior of those officers holding or acting in the post legal adviser and assistant legal advise in the Federal Inland Revenue Department who is available from time to time on duty in Lagos.
  4. The office from time to time holding or acting the office of principal assistant secretary, with responsibility for revenue matters in the Federal Ministry of Finance and Economic Development.
  5. A representative of the department of customs and excise
  6. A representative of the Nigeria National Petroleum corporation (NNPC)
  7. The registrar of companies


  1. Any five members of the Board as whom one shall be the director or a deputy director shell constitute a quorum.
  2. Wherever necessary, the board shall nominate an office of the Federal Inland Revenue Department to be secretary to the Board.
  3. Notwithstanding that the legal advise to the board is at any time a member of the board, he may appear for a represent the board in his professional capacity in any proceedings in which the board is a party; and legal adviser shall not in such circumstances given evidence on behalf of the board.
  4. The secretary shall summon a meeting of the board wherever the business requiring its attention so warrants, or upon any request as a member and a majority decision of the members shall be treated in all respects as through it were a decision of the board in actual meeting unless any member has requested the submission of that matter to such meetings.


  1. To assess, collect and account for taxes of companies throughout Nigeria.
  2. To deal with claims, objections and appeals of tax payers.
  3. To impose penalties of defaulters of company income tax law.
  4. Administration of the company income tax act.
  5. Assess the offices of the armed forces of the Nigerian Foreign service. Recipients of persons overseas. Shareholders of Nigerian companies but resident outside Nigeria.


  1. Equitable treatment of taxpayers
  2. Prevention of tax evasion as much as possible
  3. To ensure strict accountability and efficiency in revenue collection
  4. Education and enlightenment of taxpayers
  5. Advising the government from time to time on matter relating to tax


The due administration of Nigeria tax law is under the care and management of the federal Board of inland revenue services under section 1 of the companies income tax act 1999 (CITA) as amended and retained as cap 60 in the laws of the federation (1990) section 1 and 2.  The board is thus empowered to delegate any person to act on its behalf in carrying out its duties Ochiogu-Tabansi (1997).


It is good to note that no tax system can succeed without the taxpayers cooperation.  In Nigeria, just like every other country, the issue of taxation is offer regard by the taxpayers as a means whereby government raises revenue on herself at the expenses of their sweat.  Not wonder Ukale B.O (1966) states that “The first factor is that an average Nigerian is far and therefore taxes to him are just one of the evils of imperialism.


Two major problems are discussed:  tax evasion and tax avoidance.  Tax evasion and tax avoidance are the ways by which a taxpayer can achieve the same goal of reducing his tax liability while tax evasion is considered illegal by nature all taxes exert an income effect in that they compulsorily withdraw revenue from the private sector.  Also as indirect taxes are levied on goods, people tend to shift from the purchase of one goods to another, this is the substitution effect to a tax.  A good tax system is one, which does not result in either income effect or substitution effect.

However, this is not attainable in the real word, hence the application of this rule is to achieve the highest possible neutrality from the imposition of tax system.


This is defined as taxpayer’s effort to avoid paying tax by finding a legal loophole in the tax.  It is a deliberate legal act and one of the ways of going it is by taking more life assurance polices.


This is an illegal attempt by taxpayer not  to pay tax.  One of the methods is by not declaring all of ones earnings and under estimation of earning.


The following are the areas in which most of the West African Governments, expend annually huge sums of money generated from tax:

  1. Education: This tax is a very large portion of the yearly government expenditure budget. At times, it claims as high as 45% of the total budget.  Each government now struggles to provide education to its citizen not only in the elementary school level but also in the secondary school and university levels.
  2. Transport: Transportation is another item, which clams a very large portion of the budget.  Transport includes roads, railways, waterways and airways.  The building and maintenance of roads is now a very costly affair.
  3. Health: under health we have hospitals maternity homes and dressing stations. It is the aim of modern governments to bring these facilities as close to the people as possible.
  4. Administration: Costs as administration consist of money spent on maintenance of government building furniture and payment as salaries of all grades of public servants.
  5. Defense: this refer to army, levy and airforce.
  6. Police: The police force is in charge of the maintenance of law and order
  7. Others: there are numerous other services such as water supply electricity supply telephones etc. which are provided at government expenses.


Why are taxes imposed?

What functions do they perform in the economy?

Below are the main functions of  taxation

  1. To Raise Revenue: the most important reason why government levy taxes is to raise the money to run its services. The bulk of government revenue comes from taxation.
  2. To Curtail Consumption of Harmful Commodities:
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Commodities like cigarettes and alcoholic drinks are considered harmful to the human body.  In order to reduce these consumption government often impose heavy  excise and import duties on them.

  1. To check inflation: inflation is often as a result of too much money being in the land of the public. Heavy income tax can reduce such money and thereby check inflation.
  2. To Redistribute Wealth: Heavy progressive taxes can be used to narrow the gap between the rich and the poor.
  3. To Protect Infant Industries: Import duty are often used to present foreign industries from competing with the young domestic ones.




The main objective of study was to examine the aims and objectives of taxation and its impact on the Economic developments of Nigeria.  Its impact on the economies development of Nigeria.  Its was also aimed at identifying a problems that inhibit the efficient and effective administration of the Nigeria tax’s system no doubt this study had attested to address some of these issues.

In the course of this study, various literatures were reviewed t provide a theoretical framework to the study while field survey was carried out to get the applicability of the study.  From the  theoretical and practical aspect of the study, it was observed that the issued of taxation evokes many responses ins this country, people feel reluctant to pay their tax some will toy to evade on avoid it while others would not like to see the tax collectors not to talk of paying taxes.

Top give the study desired acceptability the basis hypothetical statements were formulated and two tested leading to the acceptance or rejection of the null or alternative hypothesis.

The proposed working hypothesis no I resulted to the acceptance of the alternative hypothesis (H), showing that  revenue generated from taxation has a positive impact on the economic development of Nigeria.  This is further evidenced in response to question 11, 12 and 13 of chapter four (4) under data presentation and analysis.

Hypothesis no 2 also resulted in the acceptance of the alternative hypothesis.  It shows that taxation is a major source as government revenue and as such government cannot do without it.  This is further evidenced in response to question 15 of chapter four (4) data anlysis and test of hypothesis.

Other research finding revealed that he system of tax administration is deficient which has encouraged tax evasion and avoidance, this is basiclly because of operational hard wares, lack of honest and train revenue offices as well as the structure of government expenditure programmes.

In addition to the above research finding some problems connected with the Nigeria tax system were identified to include the following.

The pay as you earn (PAYE) system in spite of its numerous benefit has the problem of some employee telling lies on their tax returns so as to obtain more relief for the purpose of getting unjustified reductions in their tax liabilities for instance an unmarried person could claim that he has a wife and four children so as to get the maximum relief.  Under these provision.

Amounts deducted by employers from their employers could remain uncollected for a long time and sometime claim capital allowance on non-existing assets to evade tax.


Effort has been made in this study to examine the impacts of taxation as aid to economic development various data were gathered and analyzed to determined the reliability of the formulated hypothesis.

The study showed that in some countries taxation is the most significant source or revenue to the country.  In Edo (Nigeria).  It was noted that taxation is the second most significant source of government revenue after crude oil.  This is the more reason why taxation should be taken more seriously

The study further discussed the problem of tax administration in Nigeria to include operational hard ware, the structure of government expenditure programs, lack of trained and qualified revenue official etc.

Based on the result of the finding this study has seen that Nigeria cannot survive without taxation hence, it is a fact tax plays a strong and significant role in the economic growth and development of Nigeria.  This can be interpreted to mean no tax, no economic development of Nigeria.


Going by the finding of the researcher, the following suggestion and recommendations are made which he believed will increase tax revenue as well as eliminate administration.


  1. STAFF TRAINING: the competence of tax officials needs improvement through adequate training and provision of suitable working materials and facilities.
  2. GOVERNMENT PROGRAMME: government should distributes its social welfare programs in such a way as to provide direct benefit to tax payers. This makes them believe that the portion of their hard earned money paid for purposes is being effectively utilized by the government.
  3. PUBLIC ENLIGHTENMENT: there should be a public enlightenment campaign by the government aimed toward emphasizing on the importance and need to pay taxes a send when due unless people know what is expected to them in the form of tax contribution and how their obligations are to be discharged, much money will be lost to the treasury’’ result of shee ignorance
  4. ELIMINATION OF LOOPHOLES: it is suggested that all of us should eschew corruption in all its facts and pursue virtur. Our laws and statute should be reviewed so as to block the loopholes of evasion and avoidance.  We should all salvage our great country.
  5. COMPUTERIZATION OF RECORDS: full computerization of records of the inland revenue department should be in place in order to be able to make prompt assessment, here quick access to tax papers personal files and provide data for decision making.
  6. TOTAL REORGANIZATION: the modes operandi for the assessment and collection of taxes by revenue staff should be reorganized such that:
  7. A revenue intelligence section should be establishment in each revenue office charged with the specialized in each revenue office charged with the specialized responsibility of investigating information field on returned form. They should ensure that subjectivity in the application of tax laws by the tax officials is reduced.
  8. Mobile revenue courts should be established to assist in collecting assessed taxes from individual and employers using “operation show your tax receipts” system and prosecuting defaulters.
  9. Financially activities of the inland revenue department should be audited annually by external auditors to ensure proper accountability control of fraudulent practices and careless errors is making assessments and ensure efficient revenue collection.

Conclusively, it is believed that if the above-mentioned recommendation are put into use the aim of imposition aid to economic development of Edo state (Nigeria) will be felt by all.

Impact of Taxation as an Aid to Economics Development in Edo State. A Case Study of Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State


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