Impact of Communication in the Management an Organization

Impact of Communication in the Management an Organization in Nigeria. A Case Study of Nigeria Telecommunication Limited Enugu.

Literature Review

In doing of this, nature, it is necessary that some critical examination be made of already existing literature so as to establish the necessary acquaintance with prevailing views and ideas in the area of study. In the process of this review, it was observed that most of the existing related works were based on directing and psychological conditions quite different forms that on which this study was based. Uses were made of unpublished thesis and past research works. The study employed theoretical literature explaining the impact of communication in management. Attempts were also made to incorporate their empirical literature explaining the use of communication in supervision.

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In the words of Flippo and Munsinger (1978:421) communication is the art of impacting a common idea or understanding to another period. The important of communication is a means by which people linked together in an organization to achieve a common purpose. Chester Bernaro (1948:82) who is regarded as one of the first and at least the best known of authors gave serious consideration to communication in large scale enterprise. He sees communication as a means by which people are linked together in an organization to achieve a common purpose. An effective communication system argues Bernao (1948:181) is a pre-request for employee participation in decision that effect them it makes little serve to embark upon some types of participation programmed if communication channel are show and inefficient.

  • THE ORIGIN OF THE STUDY MATTER

New man and Summer (1961:59) defined communication as an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotion by two or more persons. In other own contribution Knootz and O. Donnell defined communication as the transfer of information from one person to another, whether or not it elicits confidence but the receiver. These author found that the effectiveness with which communication techniques are used also influences span of management while supervisory ability to communicate plans and instructions clearing and concisely tends to increase the supervisors span. They argued that the measurement of performance against standard is not often practical or it is better said Massie and Douglas (1973:14) “ that all measurement is accurate only to a limited degree”. They opined that supervisor should ideally be on future basis, so that deviations may be detected in advance of their actual occurrence and avoided by appropriate remedies. What this suggestion is calling for is supervision of performance while it goes on, effective control should be aimed at preventing present, future deviations from plans. These writers suggested that forward looking and able manager could sometimes procedure probable deviations should be discled an early as possible. Geert Hofecede also pointed out the performance in some instruction, public agencies, schools hospitals etc. Is not subject to measurement standards and stable objectives. Trewatha and Newport (1976) stated that measurement of performance could range from single observation by an inspector or supervisor to rather complex reporting system. It is for the difficulties of measurement against standards that Thieraauf, Kiepcamp and Greeding (1977:642) prefer to regard this step in controlling as supervision rather than measurement of performance keeps in line with established standard or that the standard are being meet. Basically supervision involves the supervisor having to observe the activities of his or her subordinates, which is much of the work performed by lower level managers. According to Belasco (1981:113) the firsst factor in supervision that we consider is communication and is said to be a key factor in organization without it, there could be no organization. This can be because of its cardinal place in organizing and supervision.

  • THE SCHOOL OF THOUGHT WITH SUBJECT MATTER
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Tayhor (1947:273) is “scientific management “ said that accurate and up to date information is the basic of all management function without which management is unable to forecast plans and control. He argued that communication, as a management activity is an extremely important skill to be mastered by the supervisor in order to provide information and human understanding necessary for group effort. The factors, which is however unique to formal organizational communication and its effectiveness is that it, operates inter-relating with the organization’s authority and the responsibility structure. Hampton (1968:394) followed this study by stating that “what communication does in an organization resembles what the blood stream does for an organism. Communication system supplies all the unit-department and individual in the organization with information if deprived of this necessary information, individuals and department within the organization will not function well and this will lead to inefficiency and infectiveness on the whole organization as a system and this affect management efficiency. Standard at (1977:16) stated in their book “that good management decisions is made when good information is transmitted to the decision makers. There is increasing evidence today that many of the problems associated with management efficiency are more closely related to ineffective communication. According to Hovel (19258:11) communication is a vital tool of business. It may not make a bed business good but it surely leads to the effectiveness of a promising businessman. Fumularo (yr:Pa) backed up this ertion when he said that “communication system is a modern care for any case of business anemia. But Scalam and Key (1979:199) submitted that employee work more efficiency and with greater satisfaction when they understand not only their job objective but also those of work group and total organization. There is a direct relationship between communication and management efficiency. In so far as communication is lacking the effectiveness of the organization would continue to decline. When communication is effective there is every tendency that it would encourage the performance of the worker and increase satisfaction. It is generally known that managers determine the organizational climate and influence the attitude of the members of the enterprise. It is the managers that steer the wheels of the organization to the extent that what they devise is binding on the workers. Samara added “for managers, communication is acclaimed to the major tool for accomplishing organizational gods with people and through people.

  • THE SCHOOL OF THOUGHT RELEVANT TO THE PROBLEM

Drucker (1968:388) pointed out that a manager could only make his objective effective by communicating them to the subordinate whose performance is required to attain them. Not only do decision have to be communicated to whom it is meant to know what is expected of them. He argued that decision made are not meant to be looked up in the drawer adding that such decisions should be bought to the notice of those it is meant for. In his own contribution Andrew chase postulated, “There is an increasing need for effective employee communication system if the firm is to achieve success”. He explained “management is realizing that in order to maintain closely kunt relationship with employees and to ensure maximum output for the firm, communication channels in the firm must be modern, effective and as humanly personal as possible”. Newman and warken (1977:582) maintain that poor communication leads to confusion, frustration and negative attitudes towards meeting company goals, where as a good communication make him takes pride in this accomplishment. To buttress the importance of feedback in communication mechanism. Andrew Sikula formulated a method of communication process “running from ideation through encoding, transmitting, medium, receiving, decoding and action of feedback. Beach (1975:25) emphasized that “ for the proper management of an organization feedback is essential and if the feedback is positive management efficiency will be enhanced”. According to Herstrey Roberts, communication channel are means through which intended message pass from the sender to the receiver. Formal channel are established in the frame of the organizational structure. They follow the formal system of authority and responsibility through delegation of duties. Hence the common expression that messages and information must go through the channel. He maintained that for efficient operation of the enterprise, subordinate need to communicate and convey their opinions and attitudes to their work.

  • DIFFERENT METHOD OF STUDYING THE PROBLEM AND SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM
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According to Akpala (1990) Downward communication passing through the formal hierarchy is likely to be filtered, modified and halted at each level a managers decode what should be passed down to their subordinates upward communication may be limited because individual at higher level of organization may be relatively inaccessible to all expect that immediate subordinates Griffins (1984:489) in his own contribution said that information getting to the higher officers may also be filtered and condensed or altered by middle managers who see it as part of their job to protect upper management, from non-essential data originating at the lower levels especially if an atmosphere of trust does not exist between the lower manager and their supervisors. Hence upward communication is reportedly subject to mordistortion than downward communication. He maintained that the facility by which information is communicated shown and up the line might also be the function of the management philosophy of the enterprise. In addition he said that the informal channels also exist within organization and they relate to the informal organization. Simon (1975) said that no matter how elaborate a system of formal communication is set up the would always be supplemented by informal channels through which flow information advice and orders. While outlining the various work of a supervisor, Drucker (1968:388) said that what the supervisor needs to discharge his job is first of all a clear cut objectives which must contain goals both in terms of business result and in respect to the realization of basic beliefs and principles. He took this issue further to say that the supervisor needs the authority that goes with the responsibility for reacting these objectives. He maintained that the supervisor can only makes these objective by communicating them to the people whose performance is needed to attain them. In a study carried out by some students of the university of Nigeria, Enugu Campus (Public Administration) on communication in management, the researchers found that no matter the supervisor job is and in whatever field he finds himself his effectiveness depends on his ability to communicate. The researchers maintained that the supervisor need skill to find out what other people are after, for this reason, the supervisor needs a specific tool, which is information. In anther work published in journalism quarterly titled “ Employee communications”. Schilinger (19776) the target problem of the study was to examine the use of communication in employee orientation. The writer viewed the purpose of communication in this area as that of providing the employee with a sense of familianty and security in his job. Believing that people are more productive and more inclined to remain on their job if they are emotionally acquired with their supervisors and subordinate aid making certain that they understand the operating philosophy of the enterprise.

  • SUMMARY
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An overview off these works shows that for any business organization to function smoothly and effectively there is need to have efficient communication system. Communication is basically necessary to keep people informed, he can be more dedicated to this task and this will improve his efficiency. The prime responsibility of any manager is to get things done through people. However, his decision such ideas can only become effective when they are communicated to other and achieve the desired action or reaction. Communication is therefore the most vital management tool of any manager. On the job, he communicates not only with words but through his apparent attitude and his action. How well he managers his office depends on how well he communicates with his subordinates and people around him. In summary therefore, the managerial function cannot be successfully carried out in the message. Absence of a good communication network.

Impact of Communication in the Management an Organization in Nigeria. A Case Study of Nigeria Telecommunication Limited Enugu.

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