Factors Affecting Student’s Choice of Agricultural Science as a Career after Secondary School Education

Factors Affecting Student’s Choice of Agricultural Science as a Career after Secondary School Education in Ikwo South Local Government

Review of Related Literature

          The relate literature of this study will be reviewed under the following sub-headings;

  1. Influence of Teaching and Training facilities on choice of career.
  2. Job satisfaction and nature of remuneration as a factor that affect choice of career.
  • Values attached to agriculture.
  1. Returns to Agricultural Production.
  2. Summary of literature review.

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The following are some of the problems found in the literature review of the research which affect the students choice of agriculture science in secondary school in Ikwo south as a career.

Influence of Teaching and Training Facilities on Career Choice

The instructional  and industrial development  in the country are grossly inadequate not only that, they are few in number, but most of those installed are outdated and need replacement, which nobody has the chance to look  at the equipment, as such any student from secondary school that sees it immediately changes their  interest on the field.  When teaching and training facilities are available, then teaching and learning will increase this is accorded to Omebe S. (2003). Also stated that institutional aid and teaching materials help the student to develop interest on the course of any kind, but basically on the field that need practical work.

Finally if we understand thoroughly what agriculture really means, we will know that it is an art, a science, an industry, professional career and practical farming. From the researcher’s findings if all facilities are not properly treated, students that may be willing to  go into choosing  agriculture as a career after secondary school will not move towards the occupation.

Job Satisfaction and Nature of Remuneration as a Factor that Affects Choice of Career.

One of the most crucial decision someone ever made in life is concerning the choice of an occupational information which means having an accurate, understandable and usable facts that describe, explain and interpret occupational career or job. According to Okorie J.U, somebody’s philosophy and the way he deals with situation and problems as they arise. The choice determines the remuneration he gets from the job and opportunities that open to him for promotion and advancement. Danette (1976) stated that job satisfaction is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or experience.

Every member of the country regardless of his family background like to have an achievement that would enable him get a career of maximum satisfaction that is measured in proportion as it enables the individual to have the necessities of life. Such  necessities by Nigerian standard is have good food, get married and have social elevation of his extended family and good  house also to provide for the children the right type of  education within and outside the society. Lefgurost, Denis (1990) and Ford (2002) agree that it is the degree to which job fulfils individual’s need.

Human needs are grouped into philosophical and psychological needs according to Kclausmeler and Goodman (1975) physical requirements are necessary for health and proper functioning of the body. Such as water, food, shelter, psychological and standard consciousness like sensory stimulation, self-esteem and pleasure.

Financial reward that are associated with job has some role to play in outlook of an individual, this rules his purchasing power and the amount of necessities he is able to have. Smith (1988) revealed the findings that paid a big consideration in satisfaction which related to an individual. It is influenced by personal financial situation like expense and his own economic aspiration. The root of desiring for pay is the desire of the individual to satisfy his physical need like water, food clothing and shelter.

According to the researcher, salary is a  symbol of achievement and a  means of obtaining other values, it is a symbol of status, to others it means security and others greater freedom of action  in all life Maslow, (1980) and Madland, (1962) it must also be known that recognition is actually a very important determinant of one’s career chioce. Apart form this, working condition also serves as a major problem that affect choice of agricultural science in secondary school education. A good working condition has to do with the temperature, humidity, ventilation, lighting and noise level.  All these factors must be moderate rather than extremely high since it causes physical discomfort and  one’s ability to concentrate on  his work. A man  has a  standard he strives to maintain, therefore teachers  and farmers should be guide generously against any obstacle that attempts to plague the realisation of his goal of life. A man’s concept of   himself has a serious implication for his satisfaction on his job.

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Values Attached to Agriculture

Values according to Maduka, (1995) means the perspective of the public toward agriculture. In the study refers to   worth of something or goods for which it can be exchanged. Maduka said that even though that agriculture provides food, income, employment, raw materials for industries, and materials for shelters, it is still rated down by members of the society. This is in line with the view of Emedo (1993).

The provision of income as the revenue of an individual from the sale of agricultural product like groundnut, cassava, cotton, meat and egg are some of the agricultural values. Ogieva and Emedo (1998) noted that although farmers produce food exchange for money but they are not regarded in the society. Because of the public image on farmers, students of secondary schools that may have interest in agriculture as a career. They also added that provision of raw materials for industries are some of agricultural produce.

According to Olaitan (2001), noted with dismay that farmers are the first class citizens of any country in food and animal         production; but  the public captioned agriculture as a career that are dirty in nature; Olaitan said that agriculture is the best career opportunity which every person should observe so as to live a better life on this vast earth.

The researcher added that Nigeria export to other countries with the aid of farmers, so the student and the public should not count agriculture science as a dirty  field of study.

Ogieva, E. (1998) has it that among some towns and villages are some-time referred to as rural areas because there are no social amenities e.g. road, hospital, electricity and pipe-borne water  e.t.c. But these days rural farming areas are usually targeted by the government as area of infrastructural development.

Emedo, A.B.C et al (1993) noted that the recent change in population growth and demand of food and the state and the country makes it imperative for farm to be mechanised, the student of secondary school still mention that agriculture is not productive as compared to other field or career. But failed to understand that modern facilities has made agriculture as a career to be productive.

Returns to Agricultural Production

Returns according to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current  English (1995) simply means payment or reward for something. According to the statement made by Olaitan (2001) noted that returns to agriculture is the outcome of production, what extent production has been achieved by a farmer.

The mere mention of the word farm has set the young secondary school levers into fitter age, this is in line with the statement made by Eze (2003) in his  monograph , when he saw that agriculture was mostly associated with poor returns to production. This also found in France (1987) who said that the average Nigerian farmers are given some financial support to commensurate their effort, when farm’s inputs are greater than the outputs, farmers will not have the interest of going back to invest  where they cannot make profit. This might have been responsible for low interest of secondary school student in agriculture as a career.

Returns to agriculture production has to do with the level of productivity of agriculture. This is the statement made by Mama (2006) who added that productivity is a measure of the efficiency of the factors of production per unit of the factor(s) employed.

This is also in line with the statement made by Damman [1986] Noted that productivity is the quantity of output in physical measures realised by a farmer per unit of a certain quantity of investment. This might have been responsible for low choice of secondary school students to agriculture as a career.

According to Anyanywu (1994), where land are no more given out what the farmers need as the outcome of their production from the farm, few of them may have the  zeal to go back into another farm production. It may be said that  among the factors that limit students of secondary school students to choose agriculture as a career after their secondary education.

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This statement is seen in Akpitim (1978) who stated that when the resources employed in production such as factory, building, land, various type of propagating materials  in crop and animal production did not yield any dividend, the interest of the young farmers will be limited.  When the student of secondary school saw it, the alternative is to change from taking up agriculture as a career after secondary school.

Agriculture  in Nigeria is now at the secondary level of the Nigeria sector but no financial reward from the farm. Such situation is even more chaotic with teaching  where regular payment of salary are generated. And due to this, any secondary school graduate that sees it will not say on the field, this is in line with the statement made by Allen (2002).

According to Tarle (1931), Raph (1980) noted that a study carried in USA concluded that a part-time farming that has small input has higher average total income that full-time farming, this may cause a big problem because young farmers may be made to sit on the fence. This might have been responsible for low choice of agriculture as a career after secondary school.

Therefore, Loom (1994) said that agriculture is characterised  with low income level and productivity high input to agriculture will scare secondary school students from choosing agriculture as a career after their secondary school education.

The level of productivity of agriculture and farmer’s income will determine the interest of students from secondary school education to have agriculture as a noble profession to be chosen after their secondary school.

Summary of Literature Review

Boys and girls at one stage of the academic  Carder or the other, go  into the world to look for a livingwork. The type of job  they may found to do  will depend on  the interest of an individual, although other variables are equally considered, the interest one has in a particular job  depend on perception of the job in terms of  what the job can perform. Where one’s initial choice of occupation fails to meet one’s expectation, it leads to frustration. With the nature agriculture for farming student that may have the interest w ill likewise alter to change.

Vocational agriculture science is meant to produce people who would be proficient in farming and hence help the nation to overcome the perennial food shortage. The job of producing these agriculturist rest solely on the agricultural educators. The teachers are in a great position to change the present poor image associated with farming. They are greatly needed to encourage the youth of secondary school in Ikwo South Local Government Area of Ebonyi state and the state in general to  embark on farming as a noble  profession.

Satisfaction of job is relative to individuals on the whole factors that challenges  job, financial reward associated with the job, the condition under which the job is carried out and the self concept of the individual are intermittently linked with the ability of a job he afford.

A job where there is shortage of manpower will no doubt overburden the few students in the field. They must put effect  to provide the socially useful and indispensable service  associated with the  occupation. Agriculture educators  in Nigeria are relatively few as compared to the service they handle. Above all, teachers are generally associated with poverty and have very poor Image to the public.

It is also explained that where a job does not offer the privilege for one to realise his potentials to the fullness, one is dissatisfied, such breed disguise contempt and frustration since no man like frustration, he strives to avert at all cost, what is like to lead him to such adverse situation was not given to them then, the alteration rate will increase in its highest rank.



          This chapter deals with the summary, conclusion and recommendation.

Re-Statement of the Problem

It has been generally observed that the number of secondary school graduates taking agriculture as a career is low. There must be some variables which are responsible for the low choice of agriculture as a career, by secondary school graduate. This variable or factor have not been determined in the study area because there is no record  on the cause of low choice  of  agriculture as a career by  secondary school graduates.

Description of Procedure Used

The procedure that the researcher used in collecting data and information is the use of questionnaire, this was administered to graduate of secondary school in Ikwo South and College of Education Ikwo .

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The data are collected through the questionnaire, were analysed with the use of frequency counts, and mean. The mean of 2.50 and above was accepted while the mean below 2.50 was rejected.

Principal Findings from the Study

  • Teaching of agriculture in secondary school involves much demonstration, but without the use of tool and equipment similar to those in the working places.
  • Secondary school agriculture students are not exposed to employment opportunity in agriculture.
  • Teachers and other workers in agricultural establishment are not given enough incentive.
  • Graduates of agriculture lack input (loan) to set-up agriculture
  • Farming generate a lot of income to farmers.
  • Farmers are rated low by members of the public.

Conclusion of The Study

Therefore, from the conclusion of this study the researcher observed that wrong use of school farm and poor public image of agriculture are among the major factors that limit choice of agriculture as a career. Also, lack of motivation coupled with low returns to agricultural enterprise reduce students’ interest in agriculture as a career.

Finally, this study as revealed a dramatic change in the attitude of the youths toward farming. This might have been responsible for the low choice of the course of study in schools and subsequent choice of agriculture as a career.

Implications of the Study

The implication of this study include:

  1. That the low return to agriculture production in the communities  scale most of secondary school agriculture graduate out  of agriculture occupation.
  2. Poor preparation of secondary school agriculture students emanating from low use of modern tools and equipment in teaching, reduces greatly interest of students in agriculture careers, hence low  choice  of  the  course  as  a   It implies that teaching of agriculture   requires updating to meet the demand of time
  3. Low retention  of secondary school graduates on the farm job emanating from poor status of the farm and community, implies that young farmers cannot be motivated to remain on the job.

Recommendations of the Study

From the research findings, the researcher made the following recommendations that will enable the student to remain in their profession on graduation.

  1. There is urgent need for the government to step up rural integration and deployment since most of the students would not like to take up employment in rural areas, and continue to the agricultural development of the place and even the nation.
  2. There should be a need for the government of Ebonyi State to make loan and farm input available to the practising farmer and secondary school graduates to help them manage their own farms.
  3. The government of Ebonyi state should establish agriculture clinic, college of agriculture as it were in Ikwo, so that more students will go into the study of agriculture and then choose career therein.
  4. Workers in agricultural establishment should be motivated by payment of allowances, in-service training.

Suggestions for Further Research

Further research could be conducted in the following areas:

  1. The effect of remuneration on the desire to stay on the job.
  2. A survey to determine the proportion of secondary school students in agriculture on self-farming.
  3. A survey to determine the proportion of secondary school graduates in agriculture that would like to pursue degree in agriculture.

Factors Affecting Student’s Choice of Agricultural Science as a Career after Secondary School Education in Ikwo South Local Government


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