Effect of NPK fertilizer and poultry manure on the vegetative growth and fruit yield of cucumber

Effect of NPK fertilizer and poultry manure on the vegetative growth and fruit yield of cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

Abstract

The effect of NPK fertilizer and poultry manure on the vegetative growth and fruit yield of cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.) was studied. The experiment was conducted as a 4 x 4 factorial, laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The treatments comprised of four levels of NPK fertilizer (0, 15, 20, 25 kg/ha) and four levels of poultry manure (0, 15, 20, 25 kg/ha).

To order for a complete Project Material, Pay the sum of N3, 000 to:

BANK NAME: ZENITH BANK

ACCOUNT NAME: NNAMDI H. ECHEM

ACCOUNT NUMBER: 2081865318

After Payment, Text the Project Topic, Your Email Address and full Name to 07035441589

There were three replications of each treatment. All the yield parameters considered had no significant NPK and poultry manure effects. However, number of leaves, vine length increased as the NPK fertilizer rate increased from 0 to 25kgNPK/ha. NPK fertilizer rate of 20kgNPK/ha consistently produced the highest number of leaves, leaf area, vine length, number of fruits and weight of fruits. NPK fertilizer and poultry manure interaction were non-significant in all the parameters. However, 25 x25kg/ha NPK and poultry manure produced the highest number of leaves, fruits, flowers and vine length while 0 x 15kgNPK x Poultry manure consistently gave least values except in the length of fruits.

CHAPTER ONE

                               DESCRIPTION OF CUCUMBER

Cucumber, Cucumis Sativum L. is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae, which include squash and musk melon. The plant is a creeping vine which bears cylindrical edible green fruit when mature. The creeping vine of the cucumber plant grows up trellises or other supporting frames, wrapping around supports, with thin, spiraling tendrils. The plant has large leaves that form canopy over the fruit. The fruit of the cucumber is roughly cylindrical, elongated with tapered ends, and may be as large as 60 centimetres (24 inches) long and 10 centimetre in diameter(Nonnecke,1989).

Having an enclosed seed and developing from a flower, botanically speaking, cucumbers are classified as fruit. However, much like tomatoes and squash, they are often perceived, prepared and eaten as vegetable. Cucumbers are more than 90% water(Huang, et al.,2009). The fruits are used in unripe mature state, usually eaten raw in salads or pickled, and are also stewed in tropical regions(Grubben,1997).

The plant may have 4 or 5 main stems from which the tendrils branch out. The leaves of the plant are arranged alternatively on the vines, with 3-7 printed lobes and are hairy. The cucumber plant produces yellow flowers that are 4cm (1.6 inches) in diameter. They are mainly annual plants but can survive more that one growing season(Renner, et al.,2007).

Cucumber is the second most important of the family cucurbitaceae. The family is made up of 90 genus of which seven, consisting of 750 secies, are domesticated. The important cultivated specie are found mainly in the subfamilies Cucurbitaceae and Sicyoideae. Most of them are climbing and prostrate annuals or occasionally, perennial herbs. Generally, seed coat anatomy, polynology and phytochemistry are important in evaluating the taxonomy of the Cucurbitaceae (Jefffery,1980).

                                                  TAXONOMY

Kingdom             –         Plantae

Phyllum               –        Angiosperm

Class                   –         Eudicot

Sub – class         –         Rosids

Order                   –         Cucurbitales

Family                 –       Cucurbitaceae

Sub – family       –        Cucurbiteae

Genus                 –        Cucumis

Specie                 –        sativum

             BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION AND MORPHOLOGY

Cucumber is a monoecious trailing or climbing vine, with angled, hirsute or scarbious stem. Leaves are triangular to ovate, somewhat 3 -10bed with acute silusis. The flowers are 2.54-380cm in diameter. Staminate flowers are in clusters with short pedicels and pistillate flowers are usually solitary with short pedicels. The flower of cucumber plant have 5-parted corollas, 3-free stamens. The fruit is usually freshly indehiscent, cylindrical with numerous seeds and is classified as an inferior (Bailey 1949). It is often slightly curved and prickly when young. The seeds are relatively small, white and smooth. Breeders have developed cucumber types that are parthenocarpic, or seedless, which develop without pollination (as long as they are isolated from normal cucumbers to prevent insects from bringing pollen to the flowers).

READ  Evaluation of Urban Agriculture as a Sustainable Tool for Poverty Reduction

Cucumber has quite a short maturation period, from planting to fruit set. Harvest commences from 5 – 7 weeks after planting. The root is extensive and develops strong tap root which may penetrate the soil at the rate of 2.5 cm per day to a depth of 90-120 cm (Darwin and Thomas, 1962). Numerous horizontal laterals develop rapidly and spread widely in the soil. Although branching of the rap- root is extensive below the 60cm level,  lateral root extension is usually equal to and often exceeds that of the shoot and other above ground parts.

CLIMATIC AND SOIL REQUIREMENTS

Cucumber grows well in almost any fertile, well drained soil. However, for early maturity, lighter soils such as sandy loam or silt loam, which warms up rapidly during rainy season, are preferred. Greatest total yields however are often obtained from crops grown on heaviest soils, particularly when the moisture supply is dependent upon rainfall and moisture holding capacity of the soil. Where earliness is of prime consideration, a sandy or sandy loam soil is preferred. Where heavy yields are most important, loam, silt loam or clay loam is preferred (Hugues and Deleaner, 1989). Both animal manure and inorganic fertilizer are used in cucumber production but in most of the large producing areas,inorganic fertilizer and soil improving crops, as well as organic fertilizers are depended upon for nutrients(Hugues and Deleaner,1989).

Cucumber is sensitive to acid soils. The best result is obtained on soil which is near neutral or slightly alkaline, between 6.0 and 6.5  (Minges, 1987). Cucumber requires warm temperature of 75-85oF. They are not adapted to resist even light frost , and so cannot be grown as winter crop in the open without protection anywhere in the temperate region. Long days and warm temperatures favour cucumber growth and development (Whittaker and Davidson, 1978). High winds and relative humidity are detrimental to growth and development of cucumber as it causes the loss of flowers and encourage the prevalence of pests and diseases on foliage and fruits. Extremely low humidity leads to flower dryout and abortion.

The preferred soil is loose, well drained and well supplied with organic matter. In soils void of organic matter, work in compost or other humus to a depth of 10cm.

ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION

De-candolle (1882) who reported cucumber as being indigenous to india said that the crop has been cultivated for at least 3,000 years. The chief evidence offered for this view point is the finding of Cucumis hardwickii Royle, a cucumber like plant at the foot of the Himalayas in India. In most respects Cucumis hardwickii  is similar to Cucumis sativum, except that the exterior of the fruit is smooth and the flesh is extremely bitter. While there is no conclusive evidence that the crop, Cucumis sativus is from Asia, there are scraps of evidence that are highly suggestive.

It is believed that from India it was introduced to china during the “Han dynasty” in the 2nd century Bc where though not considered native, the crops have been cultivated for at least between 800-100 years or more. The crop spread rapidly westward into Europe, the Americas and the rest of Africa. The cucumber with seven pairs of chromosones and several distinct morphological characters stands apart from other members of the genus Cucumis and are indigenous to tropical Africa. Presently, the crop is well distributed in both         southern and northern hemisphere where they grow as climbing or prostrate annuals. There exist a large bank of wide species and landraces of the genus Cucumis.

In Nigeria, cucumber is a recent addition to the diet. Prior to the mid 60’s, it was mainly grown by expatriates, who also purchased the commercial crop. Currently, cucumber is becoming a commodity in the Northern part of the country, especially in the North-Eastern parts of Borno, Yobe and Adamawa states, where the indigenous variety is part of regular meals. Exotic cultivars introduced by expatriates are now commercially grown all over the country. With improved transportation system, large quantities are marketed further south, where little of the crop is grown.

READ  Effects Of New Agricultural Technologies On Poverty Reduction

                                  OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY

Little work has been done in the rainforest areas to study the response of cucumber to nutrient availability as related to it’s growth and development. In view of the paucity of information on this, observation on some farmer’s fields indicate that the level of soil fertility may need to be enhanced, particularly with respect to NPK fertilizer and poultry manure. The objectives of this study are:

  1. To determine the effect of levels of NPK fertilizer on the growth and fruit yield of cucumber.
  2. To determine the effect of levels of poultry manure on the growth and fruit yield of cucumber.

DISCUSSION

Vegetative growth

The result of this experiment shows that cucumber responded to NPK fertilizer and poultry manure treatment. NPK fertilizer at the rate of 20kgNPK/ha produced the highest number of leaves, number of vine, leaf area and vine length. The vine length and number of leaves increased as NPK fertilizer rate increased from 0 to 25kgNPK/ha. This may suggest that at high nitrogen content, luxuriant vegetative growth was induced as a result of cell division and elongation and the synthesis of essential amino acids and plant chlorophyll. This is in agreement with the result obtained by Yuasa and Aboba (1981) who reported that at high concentration of nitrogen, vegetative growth of cucumber was stimulated. The lowest vegetative growth was noted at the control or 0kgNPK/ha. This may be attributed to restriction in growth which is normally obtained at lower nitrogen level. Maximum vegetative growth was noted from 15kgPM/ha to 25kgPM/ha, except at 0kgPM/ha. This may suggest that poultry manure application play a vital role in soil fertility improvement. This agrees with Eifediyi and Remison (2010) who stated that poultry manure is a safer source of nutrients to plants.

The highest number of leaves was produced at 20 x 20kgNPK fertilizer and poultry manure per hectare and did not differ significantly, hence statistically the same. It was noted that more vegetative growth was produced at a higher NPK level and higher poultry manure level. This may suggest that NPK fertilizer has a complimentary effect on poultry manure. Knysh and Vakulenko (1976) noted that no single nutrient can produce any meaningful plant growth on it’s own but that the various nutrients have complimentary effects on plant growth and development.

Flowering and fruit yield

NPK fertilizer rate of 20kg NPK/ha which produced the highest number of leaves, leaf area and vine length also produced the highest number of flower. Maximum flower production at 20kg NPK/ha may be due to the production of enough organic compound by photosynthesis which were translocated and used in the formation of flowers. Poultry manure rate of 25kgPM/ha which produced the highest number of leaves, leaf area and vine length also produced the highest member of flowers. Fruit production was highest at 25kg NPK/ha and least at 0kgNPK/ha. This conforms with the observation made by Abdel – Mawgoud et al., (2005) who noted that increasing the level of NPK resulted in maximum fruit length, fruit weight, vine length and yield of cucumber. Maximum number of fruits was produced at 25kg PM/ha. It was observed that 25kgPM/ha which produced the highest number of leaves, leaf area and vine length also produced the highest number of fruits. This agrees with the work done by El-Shakweer et al., (1998) who reported that increase in poultry manure from the control (0kg/ha) have resulted in a significant increase in fruit yield per plant of cucumber up to 12t/ha of poultry manure. Poultry manure is known to improve soil structure, enhance water, air and nutrient retention in the soil, buffers soil chemical imbalances and supports living organism.

READ  analysis of resource use efficiency in cassava production by smallholder adp contact farmers

Opara et al., (2011) reported that application of 120kg/ha NPK + 5 tons/ha PM and 60kg/ha NPK + 10 tons/ha PM significantly increased the fruit yield.

Berezhnova and Agzamova (1976) also found out that application of K at 100kg k/ha in addition to basal application of 150kg N/ha which produced the highest number of fruits also gave the highest weight of fruit and length of fruit.

NPK fertilizer X Poultry manure rate of 20 x 25kg NPK x Poultry manure per hectare produced the highest number of fruits. This, however, disagreed with the findings of Glunstov et al., (1975) who reported a depression in cucumber yield as the NPK rate rose. Jasa et al., (1975) also reported that the application of NPK to mixed crop of cucumber, tomatoes and pepper at 250 or 380kg/ha resulted in an increase in yield and photosynthetic productivity of all the three crops, and particularly increased cucumber yield by 10.0 – 14.9%. NPK fertilizer X Poultry manure consistently gave least values in all the parameters measured, except in length of fruits.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

This experiment was designed to investigate the growth and yield response of cucumber in Abakaliki soil. The highest vegetative growth was recorded at 20kgNPK/ha. NPK fertilizer rate of 20kg NPK/ha also produced the highest number of flowers and the thickest fruits. The longest fruits, the highest number and weight of fruits was recorded at 25kgNPK/ha.

Poultry manure rate of 25kgPM/ha which produced the highest vegetative growth also produced the highest number of fruits and weight of fruits. The thickest and longest fruits were obtained at 20kgPM/ha. NPK fertilizer X Poultry manure rate of 20 x 20kg NPK fertilizer and poultry manure per hectare produced longest vine and highest number f leaves. NPK fertilizer and poultry manure rate of 0 x 15kg/ha consistently produced the least values in all the parameters except in the length of fruit which was lowest at 25 x 15kg NPK and poultry manure per hectare.

From the above observation in this field experiment, I recommend that farmers in Abakaliki and beyond, who intend to embark on massive production of cucumber should apply NPK fertilizer at the rate of 25kg NPK/ha and poultry manure at the rate of 25kg/PM/ha. For combined application of NPK fertilizer and poultry manure, I recommend 25 x 25kg NPK and poultry manure per hectare.

Effect of NPK fertilizer and poultry manure on the vegetative growth and fruit yield of cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

———–THIS ARTICLE IS NOT COMPLETE————

To purchase complete Project Material, Pay the sum of N3, 000 to our bank accounts below:

BANK NAME: ZENITH BANK

ACCOUNT NAME: NNAMDI H. ECHEM

ACCOUNT NUMBER: 2081865318

OR

BANK NAME: FIDELITY BANK

ACCOUNT NAME: ECHEM HENRY NNAMDI

ACCOUNT NUMBER: 6160222363

After paying the sum of N3, 000 into any of our bank accounts, send the below details to our Phone: 07035441589

  1. Your Depositors Name
  2. Teller Number
  3. Amount Paid
  4. Project Topic
  5. Your Email Address

Send the above details to: 07035441589 on/before payment. We will send your complete project materials to your email 30 Mins after payment.

Scharticles.com will only provide papers as a reference for your research. The papers ordered and produced should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. It is the aim of Scharticles.com to only provide guidance by which the paper should be pursued. We are neither encouraging any form of plagiarism nor are we advocating the use of the papers produced herein for cheating.

Speak Your Mind

*