Challenges to Effective Teaching and Learning of Technical Drawing

Challenges to Effective Teaching and Learning of Technical Drawing


Background of the Study

Technology education programme is offered in the universities and some colleges of education (technical). Olaltan (1996). The major objectives of technology education programme in Nigeria are; (i) To meet the manpower needs of the nation’s secondary, technical and technological institutions (ii) to assist in increasing the occupational options available to youths after graduation (iii) to help motivate the students in skill learning for occupations through the technology teacher. Obi (2005) identified mechanical, electrical/electronics, building/woodwork, technical drawing and computer. Technology as the areas of specialization in technology education.

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Education, particularly science and technical education, is the’ factory for the production of the needed technologists, technicians and craftsmen as well as skilled artisans who are required to turn the nation’s economy around and usher in the desired technological advancement which is very much required for the elevation of Nigeria from a “consumer nation” to a producer nation, from a developing nation to a developed nation (Avaa, 2007). Acquisition of appropriate scientific and technological skills is necessary to cope with the challenges presented by the evolving needs of effective teaching of technical drawing in Ebonyi State technical colleges. Education and training system that responds adequately to these demands will therefore, contribute to the efforts to overcome the growing unemployment and marginalization of majority of the populace. By providing access to appropriate teaching experience designed to broaden skills and knowledge can increase productivity and significantly improve the fortunes of the unemployed, thereby reducing poverty and unemployment amongst our youth.

Within the context of technical education, technical drawing has been identified as a very important science subject and its importance in scientific and technological development of any nation has been widely reported (Ara-tirmatar,2003). He added that it was as a result of the recognition given to technical drawing in the development of the individual and the nation that it was made core-subjects among the natural sciences and other science related courses in Nigerian education system. It has been a pre-requisite subject for offering most science oriented courses in the tertiary institution and this calls for the need in teaching it effectively.

All education institutions emphasize that teaching is important, and give high priority of developing effective teaching challenges. Effective teaching may include high level of creativity in analyzing, synthesizing, and presenting knowledge in new and effective ways. It should instill in the students the ability to be analytical, intellectually curious, culturally aware, employable, and capable of leadership Kennedy (2000).

Teaching is an art and the quality of teaching depends on the love, dedication and devotion of the teacher towards the subject of the knowledge. The quality of any teaching programme cannot rise above the quality of its teachers, teaching is a highly individualized activity, and the student-teacher interaction is an intense human relationship that encompasses a broad range of personalities and behaviors Streveler, (2001). There is on “best” or “most effective” teaching style which will work well for all teachers. Many beginning teachers attempt to initiate the style of a favorite teacher from the past, but the most successful style are those that develop as naturally as possible from a teachers own personal characteristics. The most effective teaching style for you will be one that reflects a combination of sound teaching techniques, knowledge of the subject, enthusiasm for teaching and sensitivity to your own personal characteristics. For example, if you are by nature a formal person, an attempt to assume an informal manner may appear to your students to be

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Just that, an assumed posture. Whatever your style, you can generally perform in a more relaxed manner if you simply maximize your own best personality traits. In general, if you come across to your students as a caring person, their appreciation for your personal sincerity will enhance their impression of you as a teacher Stice (2000).

The field of technical drawing encompasses work done by architects, engineers, interior designers and electricians, technical drafters require knowledge of field-specific notation and geometry, as well as programme like AUTOCAD. Unlike painting or the creative arts, technical drawing puts a high value on simplicity and utility. You can introduce students to technical drawing at almost any age. In line with the Okorie. (2001), state that drawing is practically a universal graphic language of lines used in the scientific world to cover mind concepts and ideas which are not limited to any particular national language which all and sundry can speak without restriction. Okeye (2001), opined that technical drawing is essentially the universal language which technicians, engineers, craftsman and industrialist communicate with. He further stated that technical drawing can be and understand correctly by technicians, engineers, designers, craftsmen, manufactures and those who have instructed in making and reading it. Okoro (2001) stated that usability of technical drawing transcends cultures and languages for any country to progress technologically, it is essential that she develops the training of her citizens in the language of the technology which is technical drawing.

According to Ekwu (2003), technical drawing is the most popular technical subjects in any technical college. It is the primer mover of all other technical related subjects appropriately or form a picture of concept of what should be drawn before actually drawing it. The student then gives up where he is faced with failure. He further stated that greater form is done where the teacher find it difficult to help students form the image of the picture required.

Okoye (1991) stated that, these difficulties are of a mechanical tradition. He stated that Nigeria’s is just starting to experience the technology age, with the result that most of her young, people, unlike youths elsewhere have had no acquaintance with machines. Mechanical knowledge attitude habits and thinking that are normal part of growing up in a technology culture; it has become obvious that there is definitely something lacking our quest for technological development. This is an ingrained knowledge of the language of technology. Collins (2000), stated that the needed background that should be a building block for the study of fields in engineering and technology which is technical drawing is missing. According to him this forms basis for the technological culture researchers referred to. Technical drawing requires a high level of imagination assembly. He further stated that the student do not always acquire or possess this against this background, it becomes necessary to find ways of improving the present state of affairs so as to improve the teaching of technical drawing in technical colleges. Statement of the Problem

In spite of the effort of Ebonyi State government to improve technical education programme, majority of students in the technical colleges skill perform how in technical drawing in the recent (NABTECH) Examination (see appendix)/ Engineering and technology cannot find good expression without technical drawing and if students continue to perform poorly in this subject, our engineering and technology base will have poor expression and will probably be unable to attain the lead found in other nations of the world. It has been necessary; therefore there is need to the challenges against the study of technical drawing in technical colleges in Ebonyi State. Purpose of the Study The general purpose of this study is to identify the challenges: ^

  1. To determine the method normally adopted in teaching technical drawing.
  2. To determine the extent instructional facilities are available for the teaching of technical drawing.
  3. To determine the interest of students in learning technical drawing.
  4. To determine the suitability of instructional facilities for teaching of technical
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Significance of the Study

The study shall be of a great benefit to students because they will benefit from the result of this study in that they will identify their effectiveness in teaching technical drawing and derive the joy and interest to become a designer after which they will have no fear or bias mind in technical drawing exam at a particular level.

Teachers will also benefit from the research work of this nature because the findings in that they will use the instruments to evaluate the students as well as to monitor and improve their competence in teaching technical drawing. The findings will also help to adopt the appropriate method or teaching technical drawing, specially, the school and industries at

It will benefit the construction company, industries and the general public because the information gotten from the work will be documented for them to use it and boost the company for a better construction. Research Questions The following research questions were formulated to guide the study;

  1. What are method normally adopted in teaching and learning of technical drawing?
  2. What are the extent instructional facilities available for the teaching of technical drawing?
  3. What are the interests of students in learning technical drawing?
  4. What are the suitability of instructional facilities for teaching technical drawing?

Scope of the Study

The study is limited to the three technical colleges in Ebonyi State. They are government technical college Abakaliki, Ehugbo technical college, Afikpo, and Folk technical college, Ikwo.

  Chapter Two

Related Literature Reviews

The related literature of this study done under the following sub-headings;

  1. The method normally adopted in teaching technical drawing.
  2. Instructional facilities available for the teaching and learning of technical drawing.
  3. Students interest in teaching and learning technical drawing
  4. Suitable instructional facilities for teaching and learning of technical drawing.
  5. Reviews of related empirical studies
  6. Summary of the reviewed related literature

The Methods Normally Adopted in Teaching Technical Drawing

Teaching means the tool and carrier. It can transfer lot of teaching information into the students in the process of teaching. It is very helpful for teaching practice to develop leaching means. Aim of engineer drawing is to attain the ability of drawing and reading of mechanical drawing which is a technical language in engineering field. The teacher displays a great deal of mechanical drawings to the students, and explains them. It is helpful for improve teaching effect to use and develop teaching means Aina (2000).

The traditional teaching method is to adopt wall maps, blackboard and chalks. The teacher expresses meanings of mechanical drawings to student by model demonstration, drawing in the blackboard, and wall map demonstration. With the development of society and the progress of technique, the epidiascope and projector were introduced to the teaching process of engineer drawing. The teacher can conveniently change the pictures by slide films instead of wall maps. Subsequently, the videocassette was introduced into teaching, teacher can play the prepared videocassette in class, it makes the lesson become more attractive and the content become more enriched Akpan (2001).

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Recently, high development in computer technology has introduced the multimedia teaching into class. The visual resources including the bright color, substantive drawing and vivid cartoon can not only enrich the teaching content but also activate the class atmosphere Ana (2000). The network teaching is, nowadays, also developed increasingly. Network searching does not rely on the time and place so that the students can select their study time content freely. It is a good assistant for the teaching quality and effect Buseri (1995).

Technical drawing is the technique of creating drawings and diagrams using a standardized style to convey exact information. Architects, engineers and many number of S’iier professions use technical drawings to communicate the design of buildings, machinery, pans and mechanisms to other people working in the production of the object. Secondary school students learn the importance of technical drawing while being introduced to the various techniques which can produce technical drawings Dryaklor (1994).

The technical drawing teaching in architecture and engineering usually trains the students to show three dimensional elements in a bi-dimensional representation given by view and perspectives. Because this kind of abstraction represents one of the great difficulties for the students, a large number of exercises are given to them, always based in full or small scale wood made models Akpotu and Okonta (2010).

The tools for drawing and design have changed dramatically over the last decade, by the introduction of the Computer Aided Design (CAD) programs. The teaching is also cr.2r.ging by the use of internet. The changes on the teaching of technical drawing cannot be limited just to teach how to use a CAD program. It has to break the gap between the real elements and the way we represent them Egboh (2009).

The use of the VRML and internet gives the students the possibility of “handling” a model in a virtual way. In an indirect way the students are motivated to make the exercises that are proposed. This technique also allows supervised distant learning, reaching different Areas of the teaching of technical drawing, specially the representation of orthogonal projections, exploded views and perspectives of parts and models Fajemirolum (2003).

Another important application of the method proposed is the teaching of architecture and engineering in the cooperative design of machines, tools or buildings by students with different backgrounds skills and probably in different physical locations, interchanging draft drawings and data over the internet.

Challenges to Effective Teaching and Learning of Technical Drawing



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