Combating Corruption in Nigeria

Combating Corruption in Nigeria: A Case Study of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (Efcc)

Literature Review

The Meaning and Nature of Corruption

          The word ‘corruption’ does not lend itself to a precise definition as Margaret Peil (1976:49) has noted “defining corruption precisely is at least as difficult as determining its effects.

          Different writers and commentators on corruption have therefore given divergent, but in most cases similar complementary defining of the concept.

          Perhaps, because corruption has received an extensive attention in communities and also due to the fact that it has been greatly discussed in academic circles, corruption has received varied or various definitions. [Read more…]

Policy of Privatization and Commercialization of Public Enterprises in Nigeria: An Appraisal of Telecommunication

 The Policy of Privatization and Commercialization of Public Enterprises in Nigeria: An Appraisal of Telecommunication

General Introduction

1.1     Background of the Study

The importance for the establishment of public enterprises or corporations was felt in 19th Century and thereafter. There were a lot of upheavals in European society because of industrialization and urbanization. Social issues like unemployment and economic inequalities necessitated state intervention in economies. Britain is widely referred to as the father of public enterprises. [Read more…]

United States Foreign Policy towards the Middle East

United States Foreign Policy towards the Middle East (A Case Study Of The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, 1990 – 2010)


This work on United States Foreign Policy towards the Middle East (A Case Study of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, 1990-2010) is designed to unravel the policies of the American government towards the resolution of the intractable Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The study is meant to achieve the general objective of examining the major determinants of United States Foreign Policy towards the Middle East and the specific objectives of determining the relationship between Land and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and also to analyze the various strategies adopted by the United States towards the resolution of the conflict as well as to ascertain the factors impeding U.S. efforts. [Read more…]

Inter- Government Relation in Democratic Federalism

Inter- Government Relation in Democratic Federalism (A Case Study of Ovia North L.G.A. Edo State)


  • Background of the Study

Nigeria since independence in 1960, has been bedeviled by a plethora of political problems revolving around disharmony, predicted upon ethnic disintegration and nurtured in acrimony deprivation, marginalization and inter-governmental conflicts. This has resulted to unhealthy and competitive rather co-operation federalism with attendant social- political conflicts and agitation all over the various regions of Nigeria. [Read more…]

dynamics of women participation in democratic and sustainable development in nigeria.

dynamics of women participation in democratic and sustainable development in nigeria. a case study of izzi local government

literature review

Series of studies in the area of women’s participation politics have been done by different researchers, this research work is thus an adjunct to other studies in the subject matter. This chapter extensively reviews previous related studies, observation, opinions, comments, idea and knowledge that shed light on the key concepts under discussion women and political participation the essence of this is therefore to create a bond between related previous studies and this research work. Attempt is also to conceptualize this study within theoretical framework relevant to the field of study.

Review of related literatures is one of the methodological requirements of a good researcher. It offers the researcher the opportunity to identify gaps in existing literature and thus, be in a better position to fill them. To drive home this review of literature, this topic would be organized under the following:

  1. Cultural Factors
  2. Economic Factors
  • Electoral factors
  1. The jealousy attitude of women politicians amongst themselves.

[Read more…]

gender inequality and women participation in politics

 gender inequality and women participation in politics: 2011 general election (A Case Study of Kaduna State)

chapter three

History of Political Participation of Women in Kaduna State

Kaduna State occupies part of central position in the Northern part of Nigeria with Kaduna as its capital and shares common borders with Zamfara, Katsina, Niger, Kano, Bauchi, Plateau State and Federal Capital Territory. Abuja. Kaduna state has about 23 local Governments and they are as follows: Birnin-Gwari, Chikun, Giwa, Igabi, Ikara, Jaba, Jama’a, Kachia, Kaduna North, Kaduna South, Kagarko, Kajuru, Kaura, Kauru, Kubau, Kudan, Lere, Makarfi, Sabon-Gari, Sanga, Soba, Zango – Kataf and Zaria. Kaduna State is divided into (3) three zones: The Northern zone, the Central and Southern zone. (Kaduna State Urban Planning and Development Authority, KASUPDA, 2011). [Read more…]

godfatherism and political conflict in nigeria

godfatherism and political conflict in nigeria an opinion survey of voters in oredo local government area, edo state


These are the techniques or procedures, which the researcher systematically applies for generating, collecting and evaluating data or information. Scientific methods are based on systematic, disciplined and controlled observations. Very important of the scientific research is that, the method(s) to be used must be conducted in such a way as to eliminate the researcher’s biases or sentiments in arriving at a scientific valued judgment over his or her finding. The researcher must be objective through the strict adherence to the ethics of research. Also, the researcher should be able to control all extraneous variables that may distort the reliability and validity of the conclusion being anticipated in the research findings of the researcher. [Read more…]

political party development in Nigeria

political party development in Nigeria: an opinion survey of the three senatorial districts of edo state, nigeria (1999 – 2012)

 chapter three

research methodology

The methodology has to do with the systematic collection and analysis of data in research. It also has to do with the research design, population of study, sample size/sampling methods or techniques, sources of data, instruments of data collection as well as techniques of data analysis.

Below are the components of the methodology of this study.


The descriptive survey design was used in this study. According to Mark Brown (1985), the descriptive survey research tries to identify variables that exist in a given situation and tries to describe the relationship among the variables, as well as identify the factors that exist among such variables.


The 2006 census put the population of Nigeria at over one hundred and fifty million out of which Edo State figures stood at three million, two hundred and thirty-three thousand, three hundred and sixty-six (3,233,366). Therefore, in this study, the population of Edo State was used in the investigation. However, it comprised of the three senatorial districts of Edo State. [Read more…]

Examine the Rousseau’s Civil Society and Good Governance in Nigeria.

Examine the Rousseau’s Civil Society and Good Governance in Nigeria.


Background to the study.

Rousseau espoused the belief that man by nature is good and that people in the state of nature were at their best innocent but was corrupted by the unnaturalness of civilization. According to Rousseau, poor people desires were minimal and do not have the drive to acquire more possessions. There was absence of reliance on others and no real need for extensive social interaction. However, there did exist on unreflective sympathy and general compassion toward others that was indiscriminate and not based on merits.

In the state of nature, Rousseau saw compassion as the greatest of virtues for mankind and regarded contempt of another which could lead to hurt feelings as a vice. Rousseau posits that a proper society had no place for blame, criticism, judgment, comparism with others and the distinction of worth among men. He proclaimed the natural goodness of and belief that one man by nature is just as any other. According to him, man in the state of nature is free, wise and good whereas the laws of nature were benevolent.

For Rousseau, the fundamental problem is civilization that enslaved and corrupted man, thereby making man unnatural. In the order of nature, all men were equal. The distinction and differentiation among men are the products of culture and civilization. The social institution in the society corrupts the pure individual. He assigned primacy to instinct, emotion, intuition, feelings and passion, and that although life was peaceful, people were unfulfilled. They need to interact in order to actualize their desires. Evil, greed and selfishness emerged as human society began to develop, forming social institutions. One such institution was private property that encouraged avarice and self.-Interest.  Rousseau saw the ownership of private property as a destructive, impulsive and egotistical institution that rewarded greed and luck. [Read more…]

Public Policy and Grass Root Development in Nigeria

Public Policy and Grass Root Development in Nigeria (A Critical Appraisal of National Poverty Eradication Programme on Asari-Toru L. G. A of River State)



In a developing country like Nigeria, the government is the biggest spender and he biggest employer of labour. Therefore, the activities of government should be of interest and concern to the public or citizenry. For instance, in a predominantly poor society like ours which is noted for the prevalence of absolute poverty in all of its characteristics features, poverty is massive, passive and chronic engulfing a large proportion of its citizenry, one should be interested to know how government plans to tackle the problem. Thus, National Poverty Eradication Programme was introduced in 2001 in a bid to curb poverty or reduce poverty level in Nigeria.

In order to extend the Frontiers of our knowledge of the causes and consequences of policy decisions, which in turn, improves our understanding of the character and behaviour of organized society public policy comes into place. [Read more…]