Factors Influencing Attitude of Women of Childbearing Age toward Family Planning

Factors Influencing Attitude of Women of Childbearing Age toward Family Planning in Calabar Metropolis


1.1 Background of the Study

There are many variables that determine the attitude of woman of childbearing age toward family planning; such variables could be viewed from Socio-economic factor, Cultural Factor Community norms, Religious affiliation, Gender role and Effectiveness of the services. Family planning is the technique that enables couples to determine when to have baby. There are a numbers of available family planning techniques (elaitan, 2011). Techniques commonly used include Oral pills, Depo Provera, Noristerat, IUCD, Condoms, Implant, and Sterilization etc.Family planning also known as birth control is most usually applied to couples who wish to limit the numbers of children they have and to control the timing of pregnancy (spacing children).

Family planning is when and how many children to have and the use of birth control techniques to implement such plans, so that they can give utmost care to the children, financially, psychologically and socially (United States Department of Agriculture, 2007). According to WHO, (2004) family planning is a way of thinking and living that is adopted voluntarily, upon the basis of knowledge, attitudes and responsible decision by individuals and couples in order to promote the health and welfare of family groups and thus contribute effectively to the social development of a Country. [Read more…]

effectiveness of immunization on children (0-5 years)

effectiveness of immunization on children (0-5 years) in amagu community, abakaliki local government area ebonyi state.


Background to the Study

Immunization coverage has remained low over the past decade. The reason for persistent low coverage can be attributed to weak health structures and systems, inadequate funding by government at all level and over dependence on donor funds, used in the conduct of ad-hoc Immunization Campaigns, Lack of ownership at the community levels, amongst others.

The National Immunization Coverage Survey (NICS) (2003) Showed a National DPT3 Coverage of 24.8%, with variation of 8.8% in the north west to 45,9% in the south east geo-political zone of the court

As the country continues to make efforts to increase the R1 coverage, great variations in progress exist not only between states, but even within States, L.G.As and wards. The general slow progress threaten various disease control initiatives and the realization of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG$) of reducing child mortality.

Immunization remains the most cost effective tool to reducing childhood morbidity and mortality occurring from vaccine preventable disease such as tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, measles, yellow fever, Hepatities B, Hib disease, etc. [Read more…]

factors influencing utilization of prevention of mother to child transmission (pmtct) services among pregnant women attending ante-natal

factors influencing utilization of prevention of mother to child transmission (pmtct) services among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in university of calabar teaching hospital (ucth)

                                                   chapter three


This chapter deals with the method employed to carry out this study. The chapter was organized under the following heading; research design, research setting, target population, sampling techniques, instrument for data collection, validity and reliability of instrument, method of data collection, method of data analysis and ethical consideration.

3.1       Research design

The research design adopted for this study was the descriptive survey design used to determine factors influencing utilization of PMTCT services by pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in UCTH from January to May [Read more…]

measures utilized for prevention of nosocomial infection in the labour ward

measures utilized for  prevention of nosocomial infection in the labour ward of university of calabar teaching hospital (ucth), calabar.

Literature Review


In this chapter, related literature on nosocomial infections and nurses’ measures toward the prevention of nosocomial infections will be reviewed. This will be discussed under subheadings as follows;etiology of nosocomial infections, causes and transmission of nosocomial infections, standard measures for nosocomial infection treatment, measures for nosocomial infections, nurses’ knowledge of nosocomial infections, nursing measures utilized for the prevention of nosocomial infections and conceptual framework.

Etiology of Nosocomial Infections

Numerous epidemiological studies have documented that nosocomial infections are commonly caused by pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses transmitted from one patient to another through indirect or direct contact (Edwards, Peterson, Mu, Banerjee, Allen-Bridson, Morrell, Dudeck, Pollock & Horan, 2009). The most common pathogens are the bacteria.  In 1938, it was established that bacteria recovered from the human body could be divided into two categories:  the resident flora (microbiota), or transient flora. [Read more…]

Attitude and Practice of Infant Feeding Practice among Mothers

Attitude and Practice of Infant Feeding Practice among Mothers

Background of the Study

Infant Feeding:Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childhood is essential to ensure the growth, health and development of children to their full potential (WHO, infant and young child feeding, 2009).

It has been recognized worldwide that breast feeding is beneficial for both the mother and child as breast milk is considered the best source of nutrition for an infant (Journal of Clinical Nursing Vol. 19, no 17-18, pp2434-2445, 2010).

Proper breast feeding practices are effective way for reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. While many mothers understand the importance of breast feeding, others are less knowledgeable on the benefits of breast feeding and weaning. [Read more…]

Identification of Medication Errors Practiced By Nurses

Identification of Medication Errors Practiced By Nurses in Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki Fetha 11 Ebonyi State Nigeria


Background of Study

The use of drugs for medication and social purpose extends through the course of human history itself. The method used to identify useful pharmacological agents involves trial and error as well as careful observations.

It is also note worthy that in July 1st 1973 the misuse of drug act came into operation in the US. This was in line to reduce amount of death which is likely to be observed as a result of medication errors.

According to Nursing Time Net 2008 medication mistakes are unfortunately not rare events. National patient safety Agency research in US shows that almost one in ten inpatients experience medication-related harm. However, many mistakes go unreported as staff often do not realize an error has occurred. [Read more…]

Professionalism in Nursing and Its Contemporary Challenges

Professionalism in Nursing and Its Contemporary Challenges


The nursing profession began with a genuine desire to service and care for others, combined with a sense of compassion and commitment. To be a nurse is a calling and difficult to describe in words. There is an intimacy nurses and patients share which is understood. The essence of nursing is an unconditional tool for mankind.

To be called a nurse is an honour- a profession of the highest realm. Florence Nightingale is called mother of modern secular nursing and viewed nursing as an art as well as a science. [Read more…]

Retrospective Study on Gender and Place of Residence as Factors Influencing Schizophrenia in Psychiatric Unit

 Retrospective Study on Gender and Place of Residence as Factors Influencing Schizophrenia in Psychiatric Unit of Federial Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (Fetha 11).


Background of Study

Schizophrenia is a long- term mental disorder of a type involving a breakdown in the relation between thought, emotion and behavior, leading to faulty perception, inappropriate actions and feelings, withdrawal from reality and personal relationships into fantasy and delusion, and a sense of mental fragmentation (Melinda, et al. 2014). It is brain disorder that affects the way a person act, think or see the world. Schizophrenia causes significant social and work problems. According to American Psychiatric Association (APA) Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM) V-TR (2013) stated the criteria for the diagnosis of schizophrenia that: the person will have a significant impact on social or occupational functioning for at least six months and the person had to be suffering from delusions, hallucinations or disorganize speech. [Read more…]

Illness Behavior of Nursing Mothers (0.5years)

 Illness Behavior of Nursing Mothers (0.5years) In Umunuka Village, Okposi


Background of the Study

Illness is a highly personal state in which the person feels unhealthy or ill. Illness is an inevitable factor in all social groups that disrupts the social, psychological and biological functioning of the sick person and his/her significant (West African Journal, 2008). According to medical dictionary, the web dictionary thesaurus, illness is the disease of body or mind; poor health, it is an unhealthy condition, an abnormal process in which aspect of the social physical, emotional or intellectual condition and function of a person are diminished or impaired compared with that person previous condition. Illness may or may not be [Read more…]

Perception of Mental Illness among Adults

Perception of Mental Illness among Adults in Amasiri Community Afikpo Local Government Area, Ebonyi State


Background of the Study.

Mental illness: Good health is the ultimate wish of every individual because it helps one to carry out his/her daily activities and invariably making the person very productive. It is important to note that for one to be healthy, he/she must be physically, mentally and emotionally healthy. Hence world health organization (WHO 2001) define health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. This therefore implies that mental health is an aspect of the well being of an individual and it deals with the cognitive aspect of health. These aspects of health coordinate every other activities of the individual and when impaired, result in mental illness. [Read more…]