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Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 amongst Commercial Sex Workers

Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 amongst Commercial Sex Workers in Jos North Local Government Area, Plateau State

History of Herpes Simplex Virus

Herpes virus infections have been prevalent as early as ancient Greek times. Hippocrates is known to have described the cutaneous  spreading of herpes simplex lesions  and scholars of Greek civilization define the greek  word  “herpes” to mean “to creep or crawl” in reference the spreading nature of the herpetic skin lesions. Even Shakespeare is thought to have been familiar with recurrent herpes simplex lesions and their transmission. In Romeo and Juliet, he writes Queen Mab to say “O er ladies lips, who straight on kisses dream are mentioned. [Read more…]

prevalence of haemoglobin variants in pregnant women

The prevalence of haemoglobin variants in pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in Jos University Teaching Hospital

Introduction

Haemoglobin variants are inherited disease caused by reduced or abnormal synthesis of globin.

Mutations in the globin genes are the most prevalent monogene disorders world wide and affects approximately 7% of the world’s population (Hoffbrand et al., 2006).

Haemoglobin pathy is defined as variation in the normal rate of synthesis or a complete absence of synthesis on continuous production of a normal developmental haemoglobin for change in the actual structure of haemoglobin e.g HbS and HbC. [Read more…]

Prevalence of Coagulation Disorder among Potential Blood Donors

Prevalence of Coagulation Disorder among Potential Blood Donors

Abstract

Coagulation disorder can either be inherited or acquired, it is a complex process by which blood forms clots after trauma or tissue abruption. Disorders of coagulation can lead to an increased risk of bleeding (hemorrhage) or obstruction clotting (thrombosis). The study design involved a cross-section of 20 hemophilic and 20 non hemophilic patients whose platelet count prothrombin time, clotting time and bleeding time was estimated using improved neubaur chamber one stage, lee-white and ivy method respectively from the two selected school hospital in Abakaliki metropolis was analyzed. With the use of mean and standard deviation, the results of coagulation disorders were found to be high in male than their female counterpart (154.5+178.4Vs118.8+133.7) for male patient with hemophilia and female without hemophilia. [Read more…]

Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Poultry Droplets

Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Poultry Droplets in Ebonyi State

Chapter One

Introduction

Staphylococcus aureus is a facultative anaerobic Gram positive coccal bacterium. It is non-motile, non-spore forming and catalase positive bacteria. The cell wall contains peptidoglycan and teichoic acid. The organism is resistant to temperatures as high as 50 0 c to high salt concentrations and drying. Colonies are large, 6-8 mm in diameter, smooth and translucent. S. aureus is frequently part of skin normal flora found in the nose and on skin and in this way 20 % of healthy human are carriers of Staphylococcus aureus(Van Belkum et al., 2009). [Read more…]

Mosquitoes and Disease Transmission: A Global Perspective

Mosquitoes and Disease Transmission: A Global Perspective

Summary

          Despite centuries of control efforts, mosquito-borne diseases are flourishing worldwide. Mostly affecting children and adolescents a condition which is responsible for global morbidity and mortality. Malaria, a protozoal infection ranks as the most significant parasitic disease affecting humans globally. This is followed by Dengue which is transmitted by Aedes aegypti causing hemorrhagic fever. West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus has also expanded their ranges over the past decades. Filariasis on the other hand is on the retreat, constituting a global eradication campaign. To limit mosquito- borne diseases, control of mosquito populations, special advice on avoidance of mosquito bites, immunization and effective public health intervention are necessary.  [Read more…]

Compare the Portability of Open Well and Closed Well (Borehole) Water

Compare the Portability of Open Well and Closed Well (Borehole) Water in Abakaliki Metropolis

Introduction

Well water is water obtained from either a hand dug or machine drilled pit. A dug well is a larger – diameter hole that is usually more than 2 feet wide and often constructed by hand. Dug wells are usually shallow and poorly protected from surface water runoff. Driven – point {sand- point} wells, which pose a moderated to high risk, are constructed by driving lengths of pipe into the ground. These wells are normally around 2 inches in diameter and less than 25 feet deep and can only be installed in areas with soils such as sand. Most other types of wells are drilled wells which, for residential use are commonly  4-8 inches in diameter is usually sealed or closed otherwise called bore hole (Hawiis population prevention information (HAPPI, 2000). [Read more…]

Impact of Information Needs and Seeking Behaviour of Medical Personnel in Federal Teaching Hospitals

Impact of Information Needs and Seeking Behaviour of Medical Personnel in Federal Teaching Hospitals in South-East Nigeria.

Introduction

Background of the Study.

Medical personnel have many information needs that when satisfied, contribute to improved patient care outcomes and medical personnel life long learning. Information needs are an expression of missing information that is required to accomplish a specific task. Many medical personnel information needs go unmet due to a variety of barriers, including uncertainty about which information resources to use. The number of information resources available to medical personnel is continually growing and there is a lack of guidance about which information resources to access at the point of care.

Fundamentally, medical personnel seek health information for various reasons, such as the need to obtain answers to patient specific questions and to keep abreast of developments in clinical medicine.

Thompson (1997), medical personnel seek information for patient care. Traditionally, medical personnel main source of information comprises books, journals held in personal libraries and internet facilities. However, with the increase in the invention of computers and the internet, many new electronic information resources and systems are now available. The availability of computers and internet has provided the possibility of immediate access to the most recent and reliable clinical needs in everyday medical practice in developed countries. In developing countries, the internet is still only available to a minority of health professionals and, often, it is not available at the point of care. [Read more…]

Treatment and Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Disease

Treatment and Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Disease: A Case Study of Egor Local Government Area, Edo State

LITERATURE REVIEW

Sexually transmitted disease (STD) is a diseases caused by pathogens (e.g. virus, bacteria, parasite, fungus) that is spread from persons to persons. It is debilitating and life threatening. They may be transmitted through the exchange of some blood and other body fluid or by direct contact. The term sexually transmitted disease applied to more than twenty infectious diseases.

At one time these disease were commonly referred to as (VD) venereal diseases. Sexually transmitted diseases are very common and mild medical infections can be cleaned up with simple medical treatment. If left untreated however, serious complication can result. [Read more…]

Hemolytic Pattern of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated From Clinical Specimens

 Hemolytic Pattern of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated From Clinical Specimens in Abakaliki on Human Erythrocytes

Introduction and Literature Review

Staphylococcus aureus is derived from a Greek word grape cluster berry and in ILatin it means “aureus”- golden”. It is also known as golden sliiph” and “Oro staphira”. (Ryan et al., 2004). The genus Slaphylococcus ay a facultative anaerobic gram positive bacterium. It is cocci, 0.5 to l.Snm in diameter, occurring singly, in pairs and in tetrads and characteristically dividing in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. (Jawetz et al.,2010).

They are facultative anaerobes and usually eakilase positive (Lansing et al.,1999). [Read more…]

Haematological Disorders in Down Syndrome

Haematological Disorders in Down Syndrome

Introduction

       Down syndrome (DS) also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21 (patterso,2009). It is a common congenital disorder affecting 1 in 1000 live births (Weijerman and winter,2010). Newborns and children with Down syndrome may present with many haematological problem, in addition, benign abnormalities of the blood court and blood film, which may manifest at any age. Population based and cancer based registries suggests there is a 12-fold increase risk to 40 fold in children younger than 5 years, and acute myeloid leukaemia in children younger than 5 years. Deaths from leukaemia, in past account for the excess mortality associated with Down syndrome (David et al., 1996 ) Many abnormalities related to blood count have been reported in small retrospective studies in the neonatal period in Down syndrome (David,1996). [Read more…]