The Subsurface Maps and their Applications in the Oil Industry

The Subsurface Maps and their Applications in the Oil Industry

Abstract

          Seismic interpretation data and applications are the key element of a rapid technological evolution in the remote sensing of the subsurface maps that has resulted in geoscientists movement from data poor to data rich Stewart, S. A. 1999. The proliferation of subsurface data has profoundly affected the productivity of oil exploration of industry within last two decade. This is radically improved of the ability to predict what lies beneath the earth surface, exploration and production. [Read more…]

Geology of Ngbo Area

Geology of Ngbo Area

  Introduction

Ngbo and its environs are part of the sediments of Ezeaku formation in southeastern Nigeria. It has four lithologies of laminated black shale, Siltstone, bioturbated sandstone, and limestone units in order of oldest to the youngest. Ngbo and it’s environs was studied using surface geological mapping with the major of identifying of the geological features. Thereby establishing the depositional history and constructing the local stratigraphy of the area.

  • Location and Accessibility of the Area

The study area is Ngbo and its environs in Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. It is geographically located between latitudes 6o 251N to 6o 301N and longitudes 7o551 E to 8o 001 E covering a total area of about 81 km2. It is located in the southern extension of the Benue Trough and Western limb of Abakaliki anticlinorium. It is within the North West region of Ebonyi State.

The area was accessed through Enugu-Abakaliki Express Road and Ezza – Ngbo and Effium Road through a network of tarred roads. During the fieldwork, vehicles, motorcycles and footpaths were employed to aid accessibility and movement to outcrops located where motor cycle where not able to access (Fig. 1) [Read more…]

heavy metal distribution in sediment of akpabuyo stream

heavy metal distribution in sediment of akpabuyo stream, cross river basin southeastern nigeria

LITERATURE REVIEW

Although much work on heavy metal distribution in sediments has not been documented here in Akpabuyo, but has been carried out on Cross River State with little attention paid to their distribution in surface water around the globe, few available works on heavy metal distribution in stream sediment try to explain the causes of metal variation in stream sediment as well as their usability with comparism to water quality standard. Only few  has attempted to study their effects on aquatic lives and man.

Ntekim et al studied heavy metal distribution in the sediment of Calabar River and attributed source to industrial establishments around coastal regions as well as metal leaching from garbage and solid waste dumps.

Heavy metal concentration has been studied in the surface water of the Le An river with copper concentration occurring as the most evident contaminant of the surface wate. This contaminant is sourced from the copper open pit mine that drains it effluent into the river xiano et al 2009).

Okarafor et al (2014) studied  evaluation of metal contamination on the surface sediments of Akpa Yafe River and attributed source to direct discharge by industril plants, municipal sewage treatment plant and polluted urban and agricultural areas and some are as a result of historical contamination (Pandey 2003). [Read more…]

Geology and Hydrochemical Evaluation of Surface Water Resources in Enyigba and Environs

Geology and Hydrochemical Evaluation of Surface Water Resources in Enyigba and Environs

Introduction

Surface Water:Enyigba district is located in Ikwo local Government area of Ebonyi State. The geology of Enyigba is an important part of the geology of Abakaliki and environs. Enyigba is located in the Southern tip of the Benue Trough within the Abakaliki anticlinorium. Enyigba is prominent because of the occurrence of lead-zinc mineralization in the area which is associated with saline intrusion such as Enyigba salt lake. The surface water in the area are Enyigba salt lakes, Akpara River, Ngele River, Ameka streams and Ameka pond, water being an everyday need is common on earth covering at about 70% of the entire area of the earth’s surface. It is found in oceans, streams, rivers, ponds, springs and undergrounds. [Read more…]

Geology of Agbani Area in Enugu State of Southeastern Nigeria.

Geology of Agbani Area in Enugu State of Southeastern Nigeria.

This project work is on the geology of Agbani area in Enugu state of Southeastern Nigeria. Emphasis is laid on the rock types underlying area, the rock formation, structures, compositions and possible deformations on the rocks. Field work was planned (literatures search, map assembly and reconnaissance) and executed along traverses, enabling the examination and recording geological features at road cuts and stream channels. The study area is underlain by only sedimentary rocks of Lower Cretaceous age which are exposed in some parts of the mapped area. Agbani area is underlain by the sediments of Awgu shales, a lithologic unit covering many areas within Awgu, Aniniri, and Nkanu areas of Enugu state hence shale is the dominating rock type within the area and Agbani sandstone. Awgu formation is about 400m thick and consists of bluish grey, well-bedded shales, with subordinate calcareous sandstone and limestone (Kogbe, 1981). [Read more…]

Geology and Foraminifera Analysis of Ikem Shale and Its Environs

Geology and Foraminifera Analysis of Ikem Shale and Its Environs

Introduction

Ikem and its environment which is located within the Anambra basin and have shale as one of its major lithostratigraphic units. The use of foraminifera analysis and palynological data in the lithologic unit of Ikem shale has helped in determining the paleoenvironment. The result from seven (7) observed outcrop samples analysed for foraminifera distribution shows that fossils like Gabonite sp, Neobulimina albertensis, Praebulimina exigua sp, Neonionella sp, Neobulimina sp, Textularia biafrae, Gavelinella sp, Hetrohelix pulchra, Hetrohelix reussi, Hetrohelix planata sp, Hetrohelix striata, Hedbergella portsdownensis, marginotrucana renzi, Marginotruncana sp, Clavihedbergella subdigitata, Hedbergella hoelzli, Herdbergella crassa, Herdbergella delrioensis, Whiteinella baltica,Dicarinella concavata sp, are present in the area, [Read more…]

Geology And Hydrogeochemical Evaluation Of Groundwater Resources

Geology And Hydrogeochemical Evaluation Of Groundwater Resources Of Amachara And Its Environs

Introduction

Geology:The study area Amachara and its environs is located between Latitude 6º30′ and 6ºand Longitude 8º and 8º10¹ E. It lies within the Southern extension of the Benue Trough, Southeastern Nigeria. This research work comprises the study of the geology and hydrogeochemical evaluations of the groundwater resources of the study area. Water as a natural resources is believed to be of fundamental importance to human life, animals and plants, it is of equºal importance with the air we breath in maintaining the vital processes to life and it makes up about 60% of body weight in human being (Fasunwon et al., 2010). Among the various sources of water, groundwater is known to be more appropriate and often meets the criteria of quality of water, the most widely used as sources of water in most African countries, Nigeria inclusive. Groundwaters have unique features, which render them suitable for public water supply (Alexander, 2008, Offodile,1983 ). [Read more…]

Geology of the Abakaliki Urban and the Physical Properties of Soils around Selected Dumpsite

Geology of the Abakaliki Urban and the Physical Properties of Soils around Selected Dumpsite in Abakaliki Area

Introduction

Open waste dumpsite is a land disposal site at which wastes are disposed off in a manner that does not protect the environment over the past few decades. The site is usually susceptible to open burning, and is exposed to the elements, disease vectors and scavengers. These unplanned heaps of uncovered wastes, often burning and surrounded by pool of stagnated polluted water, rat and flies infestation, with domestic animals roaming freely and families of scavengers picking through the wastes is not only an eyesore but a great environmental hazard (Zurbrugg, 1999).   Waste dumpsites commonly use the space available in disused quarries or special purpose-built structures. However, not all past waste dumpsite operations were adequately controlled or documented such that the site boundaries, and the type and volume of fill are unknown in virtually all the sites. [Read more…]

Geology of Ezzamgbo and Its Environs

Geology of Ezzamgbo and Its Environs

Introduction

Location, Extent and Accessibility

The study area encompasses Ezzamgbo and its environs in Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The area is bounded by Longitudes 7°55’E-8°00’E and Latitudes 6°20’IM-6°25’N. The map area is located at the North-western part of Abakaliki town as seen from the map of Ebonyi State. The entire map area is approximately 85.50km2. The villages and towns within the study area include, Ezzamgbo, Ntezi, Amechi, Oshegbe, Ezza Ntezi, and Umugbo.

The major access roads are the Abakaliki-Enugu road and some minor untarred roads, which help in traversing the map area. [Read more…]

Geology and Fossil Analysis of Amangwu Shale

Geology and Fossil Analysis of Amangwu Shale

Introduction

Amangwu and its environment which is located within the Afikpo syncline have shale as one of its lithostraigraphic units. The use of fossil analysis and palynological data in the lithologic unit of Amangwu shale has helped in determining paleoenvironment. The result from seven (7) observed outcrop samples analysed for foraminifera distribution shows that fossils like Afrobolivina afra, Nodosinella sp, Uvigerina sp, Marginulina sp, Spirillina sp, Ammonstuta nigeriana, Textularia biafrae, Ammobaculites amabensis, Miliammina onyeamensis, Ammobaculites pindigensis, Dentalina sp, Gabonita centrocostata, Nonionella sp, Bulimina sp, Globobulimina opima, Rectobolivina sp, Ammobaculites bauchensis, Textulariopsis gidankukaensis, Preabulimina bantu, Haplophragmoides nigerianse, Globigerina sp, Preabulimina exigua are present in the area, The age interpretation was based on the diagnostic fossil assemblage in the sample, which typify upper cretaceous (Maastrichtian) age, with markers being predominantly of Nkporo shale (Gemerand et al (1968), Every et al (1978) and Petters, 1982). The paleoenvironment of the study area was interpreted based on the abundance and the presence of environmentally significant fauna. Also the study area is a sedimentary environment which has undergone changes as a result of its outward geomorphologic appearance. [Read more…]