The role of plants in the treatment of diseases caused by micro-organisms based in the natural products

 The role of plants in the treatment of diseases caused by micro-organisms based in the natural products (Pure and applied chemistry)

 LITERATURE REVIEW

Phytochemical composition of crude extract of Phyllantus amarus (P. amarus).

The crude extract of P. amarus was found to contain flavonoids, saponins, phenols, alkaloids, tannins, reducing sugars and cardiac glycosides. (Phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, securinine, and norsecurinine have been isolated from P. amarus (Kabiru et al. 2013).

Phytochemical compositions of Phyllantus niruri

  1. niruri has yielded various phytochemicals which include flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, lignans, polyphenols, tannins, coumarins and saponins (Bagalkotare et al; 2006) phyllantin, hypophyllanthin, Lignans niranthin, nirtetralin and phyltetralin (Restogi and Mehrota, 1991). The presence of this phytochemicals points to its usefulness in the fight against malaria.

Malaria and the role of Phyllantus amarus and Phyllantus niruri in the fight against malaria.

Malaria affects millions of people all over the world, but a reliable estimate of those infected and at risk from the disease has been difficult to come by. In many parts of Africa, children suffer more than one clinical bout of malaria each year resulting in death or life-long health problems from delayed treatment. Most often public health officials and aid agencies do not know which regions are most affected (Avasthi, 2005). [Read more…]

Evaluate the Effect of Ethanol Extract of Locally Grown Parkia Biglobosa Leaves Locally Grown In Abakaliki

Evaluate the Effect of Ethanol Extract of Locally Grown Parkia Biglobosa Leaves Locally Grown In Abakaliki on Oxidative Stress Indices In Albino Rats Induced With Carbon Tetrachloride (Ccl4).

Introduction

Parkia Biglobosa:Many human diseases are caused by oxidative stress that results from imbalance between the formation and neutralization of pro-oxidants (Hazra et al., 2008). Oxidative stress is highly correlated with wide variety of inflammatory and metabolic diseases (Santa et al., 2004) and cardiovascular disease (Reaven et al., 2004). It is highly correlated with accumulative damage in the body done by free radicals in adequately neutralized by antioxidants (Valdecantos, 2009). [Read more…]

Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Piper Guineense as a Protectant against Liver Oxidative Damage

Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Piper Guineense as a Protectant against Liver Oxidative Damage

Introduction

Description Of Spices

Piper guineense also known as guinea pepper is a gnarled vine native to West Africa, which is use as substitute for black pepper. It is a perennial plant that is characterized by heart shapes leaves and oval, petiolate, 12cm long. [Read more…]

Effect of Rice Husk Dust Inhalation on the Cardiovascular System of Albino Rats

Effect of Rice Husk Dust Inhalation on the Cardiovascular System of Albino Rats, Exposed To Rice Husk Dust in Abakaliki Rice Mill Industry

Literature Review

Rice hulls (or rice husk) are the hard protecting coverings of grains of rice in addition to protecting rice during the growing season (otto et al.,2008).

Production

Rice hulls are the coatings of seeds, or grains of rice. To protect the seed during the growing season, the hull is formed from hard materials, including opaline silica and lignin the hull is mostly indigestible to humans (Otto et al .,2008). [Read more…]

Comparative Analysis of the Vitamin Composition of Two Different Species of Garden Egg (Solanum Aethiopicum and Solanum Macrocarpon)

Comparative Analysis of the Vitamin Composition of Two Different Species of Garden Egg (Solanum Aethiopicum and Solanum Macrocarpon)

Introduction

Garden egg also known as eggplant is believed to have originated from India in wild forms, the other parts of the world in which it originated from is China and other part of Southeast Asia. The Arabs introduced it to Spain from India as early as the eight century AD, and the Persians took it to Africa. The name eggplant or garden egg was given it by Europeans in the middle of eighteenth century because the variety they knew had fruits that were the shape and size of goose eggs.(Tindall., 2008). [Read more…]

Phytochemical Analysis and In Vitro Antioxidant Potentials of Selected Nigerian Medicinal Plants

Phytochemical Analysis and In Vitro Antioxidant Potentials of Selected Nigerian Medicinal Plants

Introduction

Many indigenous plant are used in herbal medicine to cure diseases and heal injuries in Nigeria (okwu, 2006). Such medical plants include Uverea chamae, securidaca longepeduculata and maranthes kerstingi.

The active ingredient of most of the commonly used conventional drugs were originally derives from plant parts before their pharmaceutical mass production from synthetic chemical (Holetz, 2002, Safowara, 1993). Presently, the use of natural products ranging from drugs and food for industrial material is increasing (Farworth and Bingel,1997). This is because of fear of side effects, environmental pollutions and other unfavourable factors that are often associated with conventional medication which are relatively reduces or even absent in natural products. (Kafaru, 1994; HacheFeld and Koln, 1999). [Read more…]

Phytochemical Analysis and Proximate Composition of the Leaves of Gongronema latifolium

Phytochemical Analysis and Proximate Composition of the Leaves of Gongronema latifolium

Introduction

Gongronema:Plants have the ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compounds that are used to perform important biological functions, and to defend against attack from predators such as insects, fungi and herbivorous mammals (Osuagwu etal., 2013). Chemical compounds in plants mediate their effects on the human body through processes identical to those already well understood for the chemical compounds in conventional drugs; thus herbal medicines do not differ greatly from conventional drugs in terms of how they work (Meskin, 2002). This enables herbal medicines to be as effective as conventional medicines, but also gives them the same potential to cause harmful side effects. [Read more…]

Vitamins and Mineral Contents of African Nutmeg

Vitamins and Mineral Contents of African Nutmeg

Introduction

     African nutmeg:Plants are primary sources of medicines, fiber, food, shelter and food items of everyday use by humans. The roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds provide food for animals and human beings (Agbodidi and Azagbaekwe, 2013). Plants serve as indispensable constituent of human diets supplying the body with minerals, salts, vitamins, and certain hormone precursor in addition to protein and energy. Seeds have nutritive and caloric value which makes them necessary in diets (Agbodidi and Azagbaekwe, 2013). Among these seeds are the seeds of Monodoro myristica popularly known as African nutmeg. Morphologically, African nutmeg is a perennial edible plant of the annanacea family is a berry that grows wild in the ever green forest of West Africa (Burubai et al., 2009). [Read more…]

Production of Gloss (Oil Paint) Using Affordable Raw Materials

Production of Gloss (Oil Paint) Using Affordable Raw Materials

Background of the study

Paint is the general term for stuff that is used to add colour to the surface of an object. Paint is made from a coloured pigment which is usually a powder. The powder is made from different chemicals. Some of the pigments come straight from natural things like clay. The pigment must be made wet with something that will make it stick onto the surface and not easily detached. That wet stuff is called the “medium”. [Read more…]