Histopathology of heart tissues of doxorubicin-induced albino rats treated with ethylacetate seed extract of dacryodes edulis.

Histopathology of heart tissues of doxorubicin-induced albino rats treated with ethylacetate seed extract of dacryodes edulis.

Chapter One

Introduction

Doxorubicin also known as Adriamycin is an anti-cancer drug that belongs to anthracycline antibiotics, which is a powerful, well-established and highly effective antineoplastic agent and is being used widely for the treatment of various hematological and solid tumor malignancies including leukemia, soft tissue sarcoma, breast cancer, small cell carcinoma of the lung and esophageal carcinomas. But its clinical usefulness is still restricted due to dose-dependent side effect of cardiotoxicity, which may lead to irreversible cardiomyopathy and eventually heart failure in the cardiac tissues (Zhon, S. et al., 2001.). Congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and electrocardiographic changes are usually experienced after cumulative doxorubicin administration (Lenaz, L. and Page, J., 1976). [Read more…]

Effect of ethylacetate seed-extract of Dacryodes edulis on doxorubicin induced renal tissue damage in albino rats

Effect of ethylacetate seed-extract of Dacryodes edulis on doxorubicin induced renal tissue damage in albino rats

Introduction

Medicinal plant are plant that has similar properties as conventional pharmaceutical drugs. Humans have used them throughout history to either cure or lessen symptoms from an illness. Dacryodes edulis  is a source of many herbal medicines (Iyawe, 2009). It has long been used in the traditional medicine of some African countries to treat various ailments such as wound, skin diseases, dysentery and fever. The extracts and secondary metabolites have been found to show biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti sickle-cell disease. A wide range of chemical constituents such as terpenes, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and saponins have been isolated from Dacryodes edulis (Iyawe, 2009). [Read more…]

Examination of Incidence of Malaria Infestation Caused by Different Species of Plasmodium in Enugu Metropolic

Examination of Incidence of Malaria Infestation Caused by Different Species of Plasmodium in Enugu Metropolic (A Case Study Of Parklane Hospital Enugu)

  • Literature Review
  • The Parasite

The micro-organisms causing malaria are commonly referred  to as malaria parasite by (Mornica Cheesbrogh 1998). This  term is usually restricted to the family plasmodiidae within the order coccidida, sub-order Haemosporididea, which comprises various parasites found in the blood of reptile, birds and animals.  The classification of Haemosporirche as a sub-order of the coccidida is complex and controversial since an alternative system has been proposed by (Cutteridge et al 1977).  However (Bernett 1979) classification of Hencocytozoidae has been maintained here.  [Read more…]

Bacteria Contaminants Associated With Poultry Feeds from Three Different Companies

Bacteria Contaminants Associated With Poultry Feeds from Three Different Companies

Literature Review

Among raw food items of animal origin, poultry meat and poultry meat products are considered to be some of the most contaminated products offered to the consumer (Klinger, 1993).  This is due to the relatively high contamination with various food-borne infection agents present on and in the product.  More than 27 different species of bacteria have been isolated from normal, ready to cook, poultry meat (cox and Bailey, 1987).  A large number of publications incriminate poultry as origin of food – borne infection out-breaks [Read more…]

Effect of Storage Time on the Functional Properties of Wheat/Bambka Groundnut Blend

Effect of Storage Time on the Functional Properties of Wheat/Bambka Groundnut Blend

2.0     Literature Review

2.1     Wheat

Wheat is perhaps the most popular cereal grain for the production of bread and especially for the production of cake and other pastries. Wheat produces a white flour. Its uniques properties alone produce bread dough of strength and elasticity required to produce a low density bread and pastries of desirable texture and flavour.

2.1.1  VARIES TYPES OF WHEAT

In a general way, wheat are classified according to;-

  1. a) The texture of the endosperm because, this characteristic of the grain is connected with the way the grain breaks down in milling.
  2. b) The protein content, because the properties of the flour and its suitability for various purposes are related to this characteristics.

[Read more…]

Isolation and Characterization of Microorganisms from Stored Pap (Ogi)

Isolation and Characterization of Microorganisms from Stored Pap (Ogi)

Literature Review

2.1     Origin of Maize Pap

Cereals are the fruits of cultivated grassed which are members of the monocotyledonous family graninae (Kent 1978).  The principal crops include wheat, maize, rice, sorghum, Oats, rye millet and barley.  Nutritively, cereals belong to the incomplete protein group.  This is because they are carbohydrate based foods and contain very little amount of protein compared their carbohydrate contents.  Cereals grain are rich in the B-group vitamins in the different parts of the different cereals varies considerably (Okaka 1997).  Chemically, the native grain of common cereals consists of carbohydrates, protein, non-protein, nitrogenous compounds, fats, minerals, water with small amount of vitamins and enzymes

Maize grains supply food for a large proportion of the population in  west Africa particularly in Nigeria.  It is the component and most important grain crop of the tropical world most important grain crop of the tropical world and it is eaten in different forms. [Read more…]

Isolation and Performance Evaluation of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae from On Palm Wine

Isolation and Performance Evaluation of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae from On Palm Wine. (Elaels Guinneensis) At Different Temperature of Proofing During Bread Making

Literature Review

2.1               Bread Production

The purpose of bread making is to present cereals flour to the consumers in an attractive palatable and digestible form (Kent 1982). The universal importance of bread as food has led to its use as a symbol of nourishment. Its appetite appealing aromas when baking have magnetic power in attracting patronage. The general acceptance of it as food makes bread a voluable medium for improving the nutrition of both the rich and the poor (Terrel 1970).

Bread is traditionally made from flour, water, salt and yeast. It has a honey comb structure and may be regarded as a solid foam with a multitude of pockects of carbon dioxide distributed uniformly through out its bulk. Sugar are naturally present in flour. The maltose is made available e by the action of anylases. This is hydrolysed to glucose and is fermented by zymase present in the yeast. Alcohol and carbon dioxide are formed and the latter aerates the dough ( Fox and Cameron 1995). [Read more…]

physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of culinary herbs and local spies

physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of culinary herbs and local spies

pipe guieense (uziza)

xylpia aethpica (uda)

monodora myristica (ehuru)

tetrapelura tetraptera (oshosho) [Read more…]

Use of Composite Flour Blends for Biscuit Making (Peanut/Cassava Flour)

Use of Composite Flour Blends for Biscuit Making (Peanut/Cassava Flour)

Literature Review

2.0     Cassava

2.1     Origin

Cassava (manihot esculents, creantz), variously designated as manioc, yucca or tapioca is a native to south America and southern and western Mexico, Presumable Eastern Brazil.  It was one of the first crops to be domesticated and there is archeological evidence that it was grown in Peru 4, 000 years ago and in Mexico 2, 000 years ago. From stem cuttings, the plant produces 5 to 10 very fleshy adventitious roots up to 15 centimeters in diameter. Young roots may have 30 – 35% starches by weight but very little fat or protein.

Cassava is adapted to the zone within latitudes 30 north and south of the equator, at elevations of not more than 2000m above sea level, in temperatures ranging from 18 to 25Oc to rainfall of 50 to 5000mm annually and to poor soils with PH from 4 to 9. After planting a stem cutting, the crop does not have to be tended and the roots are harvested 6 to 8 months later before they become woody. Cassava has the greatest yield of starch per acre of any crop in the world, often exceeding 20 tons of roots per acre. [Read more…]

Incidence of Nystatin Resistant Candida Isolated from the Urine of Healthy Female Students

Incidence of Nystatin Resistant Candida Isolated from the Urine of Healthy Female Students in Presco Campus, Abakaliki

                                                            Chapter One

Introduction

Candida species are opportunistic yeast affecting the genitourinary tracts. It belongs to the subclass Ascomycota and measures two to four mm in diameter (Prescott et al., 2008). The genus Candida encompasses more than 160 species. The organism variously can be found among humans, other mammals, birds, insects, arthropods, fish, animal waste, plants, mushrooms, honey, necter, fresh water, sea water and in the air (Bennett et al., 1995). Candida is listed by the center for disease control (CDC) as a cause of sexually transmitted disease (Prescott et al., 2008). No other mycotic pathogen produces as diverse a spectrum of opportunistic disease in humans as does Candida. Candida species are important nosocomial pathogens and can be transmitted sexually (Tatfeng et al., 2004). [Read more…]