A Study of the Negative Impact of Technological Development on the Secretary in a Modern Office

A Study of the Negative Impact of Technological Development on the Secretary in a Modern Office ( A Case Study of Some Selected Banks in Umuahia, Abia State)


  • Background of the Study

In the public and private sectors of the Nigerian economy, secretaries are usually very helpful to the management in the accomplishment of organizational goals.  With the advent of technical know how in our modern establishments there is an increase in demand for sophisticated and modern technologies in Nigerian organization.

In the light of the above situation this research work is aimed at identifying the Negative Impact of Technological Development on secretaries in a modern office.

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There are various categories of secretaries, which includes: the executive, secretaries, the company secretaries, confidential secretaries, parliamentary secretaries and others.

Each of them is changed with well-articulated and defined functions and roles, which are expatiated of them.  This study concentrates on the role of the executive secretary, employed by a company who is attached to an officer who is of the executives cadre.

A secretary may be viewed as a person who has acquired the basic knowledge of secretarial skill of shorthand, typewriting and sufficient knowledge and practical experience in office routine.  Depending on the objectives of the organizations a secretary meant all things to all people.

However, there are some basic functions which secretaries perform and these form the basis of their identify in an organization these functions are:

  1. Initiating relevant correspondence on all routine, matters and drafting letters as authorized
  2. Collecting relevant information from relevant sources for office use.
  3. Follow up the diary of her boss daily.
  4. Dealing with visitors and telephone callers on issues which the secretary is knowledgeable.
  5. Preparing the boss for meetings and other entertainment etc.

In spite of this very important functions performed by secretaries, the secretary still needs the modern office technology to efficiently carry out his/ her duties.

Prior to the technological development in offices, clerical works were done manually the sizes of offices were small and little work was done manually.  Then there was nothing like the modern equipment like, typewriter, telephone, photocopying, machines, addressing machines etc.

Technology is the application of scientific principles and knowledge to solve societal problems.  It could be defined as the study, mastery and utilization of industrial and manufacturing methods as well as their application to practical tasks in the industry.  Considering the degree of accuracy, convenience, speed and efficiency provided by modern technological aids, people have increased their awareness and utilization of modern technology in their organizations.

Though, modern technology assists, yet secretaries are afraid of being displaced by them, because some of the manual equipment used by secretaries are being supervised by automated machines and processes.

It is not very easy for technologies to replace secretaries in the offices because the place of a secretary is very significant.  This is because any technology applied will be operated by a trained secretary if efficiency and effectiveness must be maintained.  There are also human attributes that the secretary possess that modern technology cannot offer.  Adequately trained, reasonably motivated and royal secretaries aid the executive in the performance of duties will be needed to complement the modern technological innovations in the offices.


Because of the increasing demand for the use of automated processes in our organization in Nigeria, technology has been introduced to perform most of the jobs in the organization, more especially the duties of a secretary in an office.  In some organizations, the management considers it fit to employ computer operators, programme managers and technologist instead of providing adequate training and education for their secretaries to handle such computers.  As a result of this secretaries have been regarded as mere typist who cannot handle these machines, nor who do not have the capacity to leaver and caravel new skills.

The problem of this study is that many secretaries has been displaced in the office while many others have been hindered from securing a good job by the introduction of technological development in the case of secretarial profession.

In the light of all these, this research work aims at encouraging secretaries to put aside their fears and anxieties of being replaced by technological advancement in the office or getting people that will effectively use such machines without involving the secretaries.  The researcher intends to tackle this problem by investigating the place of secretaries in a technological advanced organizations like Banks such as: first Bank Nig plc, STB and Union Bank of Nigeria all in Umuahia.


The general objective of this study is to evaluate the place of a secretary in a technological advanced economy.  The specific objectives includes:

  1. To examine the kind of modern technology that exist in the organizations.
  2. to find out if modern technology pose any threat to the secretary.
  3. to find out, if secretaries will adequately fit in the modern technological office environment, when they are sufficiently trained.
  4. to examine if technological advanement can generate job opportunities or unemployment for secretaries.
  5. to study how technological advancement in offices can facilitate or mar the job of secretaries.
  6. to appraise the changes which technological advancement can cause in the duties of secretaries.
  7. to recommend measures for blending the job of the secretary and sophisticated modern equipment in achieving high productivity in offices.

When this study has been concluded, an elaborate examination of the role of a secretary in an organization must have been done.  Some organizations are not aware of these modern office technologies.  This type of organizations will benefit from this research, because, after getting through this work, they would be well exposed about the various equipment, that they could use to carry out their duties effectively.  There are other organizations who knows or are aware of the existence of this modern office equipment, but are not informed about their applications, these organizations will equally benefit.

What about organizations that are privileged to have access to this equipments? They will be at an advantage in that, they will be better placed to know the different roles which secretaries can play and their ability to operate complex and automated machine.  This research work will also be useful in institutions of higher learning that offers secretarial studies.

Hence, after reading this research work, they will be able to redraw their circular and syllabus to accommodate subjects that are computer oriented.


The primary aim of this study is to examine the negative implication of technological oriented business environment on the modern secretaries.

However, because of some constraining factor such as lack of co-operation from information administrators sources, finance and poor transportation system, the research decided to limit the scope to only some selected banks in Abia State, such as first Bank and Union Bank.  Which represents a sample of the population of Nigeria enterprises.


Some research questions has been designed, to guide the research work in achieving its focal points.  They include:

  1. What kind of modern technology exists in organizations in Nigeria.
  2. Is modern technology a threat to secretary>
  3. Will adequately trained secretaries be employed to improve office environment
  4. can technological advanement generate employment or unemployment prospects for secretaries?
  5. what changes can advancement in technology bring to the duties of a secretary?
  6. how can technological advancement facilitate or man the job of a secretary.
  7. what measures can be taken to blend the job of the secretary and the modern equipment in achieving high productivity.


          A skill practitioner of the basic office who is employed as an administrative assistance to a superior officer.


          This is a complex modern labour and cost cutting equipment that are now increasingly utilized in organizations.


          It refers to the process by which an idea is translated into written communication. It also records typed words, diagrams etc and displays them on screen, where they can be corrected or changed and then automatically printed.


          Its means facts or information


It’s a keyed writing machine


          An electronic device used for storing and analyzing information fed into it, its also used for calculating.



Just when secretaries originated no one knows exactly.  The role arose out of the mutual need for a prominent person to whom confidential matters could be entrusted and who could act as an assistant for a manager.  But the origin could be traced as far back as 1829 and 1937 (Encyclopedia of careers and the vocational guidance 4th Edition vol . 11) which Isaac Pitman and W.A Burst, introduced and invented shorthand and typewriting respectively in America.

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However, the profession started in Nigeria in the 1920’s with pioneering firms like United African company (UAC) and John Holt company Limited, training people to become clerks and typists.

More so, in 1949 the Nigerian Government made a conscious plan for qualitative training of professional in Nigeria, including secretarial studies.  And this was because effective preparation of secretaries in Nigeria did not have a bright beginning.

Subsequently, there came the existence of colleges of Arts, Science and Technology, Amacfula (1986) Along with this were staff training centers such as the institute of Administration, which included secretarial training in their course of study.  There were also, few other private commercial institutions which offered business to secretarial aspirants for first entry into the jobs.

The number of secretarial staff than was still very minimal, therefore, the need for clerical and secretarial staff forced the colonial officers to introduce some elements of business education into their curriculum of business studies.  Thus, the Bonny Government school and Hope inleddel secondary school was established about the same period and they included in their curriculum, subjects like shorthand, typing and economics.

And today, many commercial, secondary schools and comprehensive secondary owned by both government and private proprietors, are all over the place to run beginner courses in professional work.

At the higher institution many polytechnics both federal and states are running this programme to train secretaries.  Presently, four of our Nigerian universities are offering degree programme in secretarial science, these are the university of science and technology port- Harcourt, rivers state university, Niger-Delta university and Babcock University Lagos.  There is also an advanced degree programme introduced to rain secretaries and this is the National Association of chattered secretaries (NACS) in Lagos.


When an organization introduces processing system, which in other words is known as Automation, manpower requirement changes.  And so, the atternative will be to select qualified men outside, applicants who are already trained and qualified to handle this office automation.  Training in word processing should b direct towards several objectives.  Beyond training in  basic operation of equipment, it is especially important that word processors develop typing skills from both auditory and visual input.

In addition, knowledge of special computer language many be desirable since such knowledge lends itself to more efficient or immovative use of the computer.

Harrison (1985) has it that secretaries have place in the office in future.  Although, he admitted to the fact, that secretaries role is changing, and he feels that this change is for the better.  He went further to say that today’s secretaries are doing budgets, spread sheets, graphs and a lot of other things beside typing.  To him the secretary and the manger are seen as a team.  Because a good secretary can make a manager.  So for managerial productivity to be achieved, more powerful tools are to be placed in the hands of a secretary.

Thousands of words have been processed in the last few years on the impact of new technology on office workers and in particular on the role of a secretary.


For decades, teachers, students, and secretarial associations have been decrying the fact that the term secretary has been abused ranging from the one fingered typist through the shorthand typist to the genuine indispensable manager’s assistants.  But in terms of actual usefulness, any manager would, acknowledge that an efficient secretary has a tremendous impact on his own work.  For this, reason, most managers have found out that running the complex system of information without the personal back-up of a secretary has the effect of actual lowering management result.

Robbert (1981) has it that in the 60’s and 70’s the great increase in the use of electric typewriters came about partly as a result of secretaries changing jobs for greater job satisfaction and introducing the typewriter to the new company.  So the secretary has to be innovative, to share her ideas as part of a team and to take a participative role in decision making.

Word processing now keeps pace with the demands of the information age and its technology with the most direct impact on the secretarial role.  Such revolutionary change got two responses; curiousity and fear of the inknown.  Now technology demands the good-will of people who use it and the introduction of effective procedures to provide the full benefits at its capabilities.  Therefore, secretaries who wish to retain their market abilities should develop a healthy curiosity about office technology, and learn as much as possible about its potentials.  James (1982)

Electronic mail has made messaging nearly, effortless because of a secretary.  Through the E-mail a secretary relays messages electronically to one or all of its employees.  Then when a member of staff returns to his office, he /she checks his/her in –box for messages.  Its left for him/her to either reply the message or delete it.  Though, the electronic mail never displace the secretary, it aids the secretary to carry out his/her work effectively.


Pitman 91983) with all these technological innovations, the secretary still has a place in the modern office.  It is important to note that despite the words recession, those  with secretarial training and qualification still obtain jobs.  Technology is changing the job of the secretary, but it is not eliminating it.  Akitinson (1984).

However, the job of a secretary does not change, it is only the method by which it is being done that changes.  Technological advancement saves the secretary’s time and energy.

Akitinson further added that shorthand and typewriting continues to be the basic skills for the better jobs.  All technology does not change human ability and preference, so shorthand and typewriting provide the means of transition.

The difference between typewriting and key-boarding, is that a large part of typewriting is learning how to work on paper, whereas key boarding is more concerned with learning the layout and format of the final document.  The day when voice input will replace shorthand is still a long way off, and when it comes, the need will also disappear for audio typewriting.

As traditional office roles are supported by technology, the secretarial role becomes more oriented towards administrative duties which will depend largely upon the particular business on department, but may include research and information handling routine mail.

More so, future secretaries will embrace its opportunity for job enrichment, advancement and be happy to move ahead with these technological developments.  For the foregoing, it can rightly be said that the new technological does not replace people in their skills and various jobs.  It merely augments their skills and opens new avenues for those who are ready, willing and able to meet challenges.


During the last decade, the electronic typewriter has come to exert a powerful influence in office, thereby, replacing the manual machine.  The great advantage of electronic machine is the reduced effort to operate them, for a merest touch on a key completes the circuit to type the character.

The second major development is the emergence of really successful single element typewriters.  The IBM electric “golf ball” typewriter did away with noisy and space consuming carriage movement of earlier machines, the typing element traveling instead from side to side, the absence of type-bars eliminate jamming and top speed of the machine raised.  Other refinement introduced sophisticated similar machines like cartridge ribbons, which snap in and out in few seconds, it also has a larger range of repeat action key lone finders and end of page indicators.  The most sophisticated machines incorporate error correction through a correctable film ribbon, stroke storage to ensure that characters are typed in the sequence in which keys are depressed and automatic impression control to ensure even impressions on the paper.

With the increasing sophistication of electronic technology, however, the early seventies took a new look at stenographic requirements to modern offices.  A new term word processing began to creep into the vocabulary. It established link between the ordinary communication medium of office words and the ability of electronic equipment to process input material and make decisions about it.  As a result, word processing has constituted new cost-saving techniques to the secretarial range of activities.


The technical advances have completely changed the role of the secretary as far as communication by telephone is concerned.  Not all these changes have been advantageous from the executive secretary’s point of view.

The telephone is the direct and personal links, firms have with their customers, and business contacts today.  It is possible to lift a receiver, dial a number half way round the world, and within seconds be speaking to the very individual we desire to contact.

As a result of the difficulties encountered in meeting people, the telephone services as the best link and most immediate.  The secretary dials the number, says a cheerful good morning; to the person at the other side who is ready to do business.

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Therefore, every telephone call is an opportunity to enhance your company’s reputation.  It can also destroy utterly the formerly favourable attitude of an important client within your own firm, it can cement departmental solidarity or it can lead to district and inter departmental strife.


According to Macdonald (1973:1385) Technology is “the practice of any or all applied sciences that  have practical value and industrial use”.

Technology is not just a mere invention, but has added glamour, comfort and excitement not only secretary, but to every aspect of human endeavour with special reference to industrial and office work.

Automation is an off-shoot of technology and has recorded tremendous success since it non a universal acceptability.  Conversely so many eminent scholars have tried to coin acceptable and comprehensive definition of this technological break-through.  The funk and Waynals Encyclopedia (1986:124) he defined automation as ‘A system of manufacture designed to extend the capacity of machines to control sequence of operations without human intervention”.

It went further to add that the term automation has been used to describe manufacturing system in which programmed or automatic device can operate independently.  The new Encydopedia Britainica (1988:772) tries to take its own view of automation.  It defined it as ‘the application of machines to tasks once performed by humans.


          Since 1900, officer procedures have gone through several phases.  This has been caused by the growth in the size of business enterprises and the resultant increase in volume of office work, the increase cost of services and materials, rapid technological and scientific progress of the modern age.  Gone are the time when fine handiviting was an important qualification for office position.  But it was found that manual office work was exceedingly shown and was supplemented by machines.

The typewriter was invented and its use in the office with the revolutionary effect upon business, with it work was done more quickly, more economically, more legibly and accurately.

On the other hand, the expansion of business demanded more office workers, hence women were employed, especially in secretarial fields.  The invention of typewriter was followed by the adding machines and calculating machines, cash registers and book-keeping machines.  The use of this new office machines and its method generated new business activities and new job opportunities.

More so, the method of business communication was thus improved by expanding the use of the telephone and the telegraph which opened upon entirely new set of business forms, employing thousands of workers in jobs that never existed before.

Today, however, the businessman is faced with finding even better methods of doing larger volume of office work at the same or less cost than before.  The advantage of automation which have been applied in factory work for increased production are now being effectively adopted to office work and this is where the secretary comes in.

Hence, it is a commonly held view that all secretaries do the same thing, but it is not true.  A trained secretary has all the skills of management,  organization, efficient communication skills and thorought knowledge of the business in which he/she works.  The branch Manager of Darke international Vincent said “that you can be willing to be what ever you want to be, if you are willing to pay the price”.  The typewriters could be improved but still has to be operated by somebody.  The manual typewriters have been replaced frist, by the electric typewriters but they are still operated by humans.  The only difference is the way in which electonic produces documents.  The electronic typewriters has an in built correction tapes, automatic pitch selection, automatic repetition of some keys.  Other common automatic features includes: tabulation, margins correction, line spacing, centering, type size selector and column decimal aligument. With these moment each day is spent on handing other matters like writing speeches and articles, completing forcus etc Berkle and Ronald (1969).

Considering the desirable importance of electronic typewriters role in the office, it is very encouraging to learn that these machines are an imporvemen over the manual ones previously used the important fact is that, despite the several changes currently taking place in the office, the typewriter will continue to play a vital role.  Therefore secretaries still have a place in the modern world.

Word processing equipment is a costly luxury when it stand idle, so it is not every office that can afford it.  Small enterprises do not usually generate sufficient volume of correspondence circulars, letters, projects analysis, specifications of contractual documents to warrant automation.  When work volume begins to amount in small sized businesses, they often chose to give extra word load to a word processing service bureau.

Although, the medium sized company exhibit can benefit consciousness before committing funds to purchase of a word processor, even in large offices, installation of a word processor, is not an over-night affair.  A long time is needed to complete feasibility studies which involves selecting the appropriate equipment standard, publishing procedures, manuals and training managers and secretaries to use such automation facilities.  Therefore, time is needed to overcome fear and anxieties of the secretaries being replaced by technological advancement.  Humans were taken into consideration when carrying out the feasibility study by sending them out for training to learn how to operate new equipment.

So, instead of the secretary being replaced they are rather exposed to new skills that aids, Krause, Leonard (1969).

In some big organizations, word processors are installed and some executive secretaries are re-assigned to work with two and sometimes three executives.  While non-confidential correspondence and typewriting assignments go to the central word processing unit, the secretaries are made to handle the confidential matters personally.  Executives and managers who retail secretaries on a shared basis are severed  both by word processing center and by the seno-secretaries who assist them with administrative tasks that are associated with their functional responsibilities.  The positions held by secretaries are most often retitled as: “Administrative assistants” or Executive Assistants” and their duties are not “line responsibilities but are “staff” or “pava- management” in nature which include handling the inflow and out flow of information which originates in correspondence reports of meetings and conversation with people, sander Donald 91976).

Word processing may prove to be the catalyst by which the secretary’s career prospects becomes more meaningful and salaries more midely differentiated between level of responsibility and competence.  Word processing has gained increased attention and popularity among office managers and staffs due to its potentials for increased productivity and reduced costs.  In summary, the role of a secretary changes drastically when the word processor is introduced.


          These ranges from the communication system storage of information.  Various communication gadgets are in our offices today, ranging from ordinary normal telephone to shipton telestoo auto phone which serves a dual purpose for the secretary; it answers calls and gives callers information and manager in the secretary’s absence.  The recorded calls are re-layed to the secretary on switching the machine and callers concerning the bass are re-layed to him from the secretary.

However, storage wise electronic / thermotronic typewriters, computers, microfilm machines are used.  The in-built memories are used to store data that are recalled whenever needed, provided the disc is kept safe.  Therefore, no mater the situation, the secretary’s role is still needed to operate these machines and feed them with the necessary information.

It has been acknowledged that the increasing rate of technological development of secretary – ship is rapid and fast moving. Hence, it should be noted that their proliferation of offices and markets can never displace the secretary but rather improve the job of the secretary, effectively, efficiently, so as to achieve maximum productivity.  Then, one can rightly say that the secretary does not resist innovations in organizations, because it does not throw the secretary off- balance, but improves his/her job.  These innovations merely requires modification of the already acquire skills by the users adoption.   Organization should therefore keep abreast of the development trends in technology, irrespective of the cost and maintainace culture.


          The trend of technological development of this country is growting rapidly and has reached a standard of recognition in many fields of human endeavour such as health, education, industry, government, commercial and non-commercial areas.  This development requires adjective demands in the form of time consciousness, job description and specification.

Imade 91970) stated that technological effects should lead to demands that should in turn lead to action, education and training for the purpose of developing adopted technology.  Individuals, firms and government resist innovation due to several reasons such as finance, age, fear of lose of job and environment and also safety or security.

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A secretary’s age play an important role on his/her adaptation of modern technology in the office.  Fear of loss of job and environmental security, like being electrocuted in the cost of operation affects innovations and makes people resist it.

Today most office machines have eluded our markets and organizations in that some secretary’s feel that these device in the modern commercial word would displace them.

Vinnicomble (1981) has it that instead of using word processing units to replace existing secretarial capcities, it can be used to increase and expand the scope of secretarial and management staff.

Office skill asserts that technology is changing the work of the secretary, but not eliminating it.  Office technology in the form of word processors, telex, calculators and photocopiers save time, and eliminate drudgery (boredom or uninteresting).  These machines, have mechanized the secretarial skills and stabilizes office procedure and never intends to displace secretaries from their job efficiency and effectiveness.

In summary, it can be said that the introduction of new impacted technological equipments has affected the secretarial role positively, rather than substitute the role of the secretary.



Analyzing the data collected to answer the research questions geared at finding solutions to the Negative Impact of Technological development on the secretary in a modern office.

The analysis of the data revealed the following:

In table two of chapter four, 20 respondents from the three selected banks said, that if they are being properly trained, that they can b=handle this new machine well.  Showing that training is needed for secretaries to learn how to handle this equipment effectively and efficiently.

Table three has it that, some workers still feel that the computer as a new machine has displaced worker.  Because out of the twenty respondents, five said, that it has displaced workers, while fifteen said, no, that it has not displaced workers.  But that it is a shift in base or knowledge.

Also in table four, some servetarial roles, were listed and all the respondents were asked to indentify the appropriate ones that are suitable for the secretary.  In carrying out his/her task.  And they all said that all the under listed roles are very important and are appropriate for the secretarial profession.

Through observation, I noticed the secretary perform this task effectively.

As shown in table five, all the respondents has it that organizations do not train workers for this new technological development.  Meaning that secretaries must learn how to use this new machine before being employed.

Fifteen respondent, said that modern technology has pose no  threat to secretaries.  This shows that, this new computers or machine is not a dangerous tool but a helpful one for secretaries to perform their task accurately & effectively.

In respect to the question asked at task seven, fifteen respondent out of twenty said that this new technological development generatic job opportunities for secretaries aid executive secretaries.  And table eight, has it that facilitate the job of a secretary.

All the respondents in table nine said that, workers do not oppose management decisions on the introduction of this new machine.

Table ten, has it that typewriters are still useful in some organizations.  The three banks where this research work is being carried out said that they  still make use of the typewriters in their organization.  And also, other machines, such as the ones listed at table eleven are still very important in every organization.

Hence, from the oral interview concluded, all respondents from the three banks said that technological development gave job opportunities and created new career awareness.  They also agree that the computer is very necessary for modern banking business, mathematical accuracy, quick customer service, and also efficiency is guaranteed.

More so, the bank itself is a business organization formed solely for service and profit.  There is need for various banks to up-date their information and service system to enable them fit into the competitive nature of business banking.  Since what matters is customer satisfaction, the introduction of this new machine will go a long way to shorten wastage of customers time and other forms of delay.

This new machine has created job opportunity for those who knows how to handle it effectively.  And that is why those who took it as a major course gets job easily.

There is no doubt that technology enhances productivity and increases performance this is because automation cannot be compared to job specialization, the speed is always there.  And this fact was confirmed by the three organizations, where this research work was carried.

Finally, this technological advancement creates job opportunities and new careers for secretaries.


          Having carried out a study on the negative impact of technological development on the secretary in a modern office, the analysis of data has it that, the secretary cannot be displaced or replaced by modern office madrives.

Findings also revealed that, the secretary’s mace in an organization can not be taken for granted.  If there is no qualified secretary in an organization, activities in that particular organization, conus to  a stand still, no matter the type of technology used.

In view of this, the researcher concludes that:

  1. No technology can displace or replace the secretary entirely in the organization.
  2. the existence of modern office technology is made possible by human effort, which is done by either a secretary or any other staff specially trained for that.
  3. the assumption of technological development being a threat to the survival of secretaries in today’s world is rejected.
  4. that no organization can survive in isolation of the secretarial services.


          Based on the summarized findings, the researcher offers the following recommendations:

  1. There should be an introduction of require course automation and computer into secretarial studies school curriculum.
  2. the student secretaries should have indent knowledge of the utilization of these machines, so that they will not be afraid of being displaced in future, when faced with innovations.
  3. there should be a change in the attitude of people since secretaries have started adapting to the computer revolution.
  4. management should not hesitate to introduce this new machine to their workes, knowing full well that they cannot oppose duy decisions made by the management.
  5. secretaries who presently, have not known the operational made of this new technological development, should errol now, for lecturers on it. Since their getting a job depends so much on it now.


          To carry out this research work, the researcher passed through some problems, which is normal.  Because to carry out a research work, difficulties are bound to be encountered.  So the problems encountered by the researcher includes:


          The researcher found it difficult to convince some of the respondents, who refused to responde positively to the questionnaire.  Even in the oral interview some did not give valuable information and few, who were given the questionnaire did not return it back to the researcher.


          There was no sufficient fund for transportation to the selected organization chosen for this research work.  Transport fare was high and as such the researcher could not travel frequently to Umuahia, for more findings.


Inadequate materials in the library passed a limitation to the researcher.  The researcher has to search for relevant text books for this work, but there was not much existing books available for consultation.


          The researcher was not given much time to carry out this research work.  The little time given was shared between her course work and the researcher work, which put the researcher in constrained position.

A Study of the Negative Impact of Technological Development on the Secretary in a Modern Office ( A Case Study of Some Selected Banks in Umuahia, Abia State)


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