newspaper readership pattern among Nigerian youths

newspaper readership pattern among nigerian youths. (a case study of imt students)

Sources of Literature Review

In my literature research, I reviewed some theoretical and empirical literatures relevant to this study.  The research cantered on studies carried out newspaper readership pattern among youth.  It is in recognition of this study that, facts and information, well gathered to ascertain what constitute newspaper readership pattern among Nigeria youths.

Literature Review

Education Information and entertainment have always been identified as the basic function of the media.

Both electronic and print media share the functions and they are made manifest in different foams of the news contents.

Despite the fact that these are the functions of the media there are certain factors that determine which media people turn to for maximum enjoyment.  Some people prefer electronic and others print media.  The electronic include radio, television, satellite, etc while the print media compresses magazine, fictional and non fictional literature and the newspaper.

Age, sex, education attainment, economic, social and psychological factors have been known to be exposed to.

In a study by Elizabeth R. Hurlock it was discovered that, ‘interest in newspaper reading  vary according to age and intellectual level of the reader and there are marked sex difference in the preferred sections of the newspaper” (1955, page 10) Read More »

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oil price instability and industrial sector output in Nigeria

oil price instability and industrial sector output in Nigeria

In the theoretical literature, trade oil has been identified as one of the most crucial commodity traded on the global economy. Despite the fluctuating nature of the commodity in terms of it’s pricing, crude oil together with petroleum – based products, accounts for over 70 percent of the commodity export of developing countries

According to Ubogu “1979” crude oil is of such important of the world economic, chat for the producers, at presents on easily negotiable source of wealth, for the industrial sector, it represents an efficient source of energy and for the industrial sector, it represents a good base for industrial production. Because of the pressing chain chat result from petrol chemicals crude oil is equally importance in many more ways that no other commodity impinges so directly on the lives of people. For the Nigerian economy, the oil sector has been the key propeller of economy since that early 1970s since then, the oil sector has accounted for over 95 percent of total foreign exchange. Earnings and about 87 percent of government revenue “Adeyemi 2001” Rather than being a leading sector and a key factor in the socio – economy as a wile, the oil sector is yet to developed the capability of effectively tapping the potentials of the industrial sector to promote dynamic and self –  sustaining growth and development.

Consequently, with the continuous instability in the oil industry resulting largely from political instability inconsistency in governments policy, frequency classes and inter tribal wars in the oil producing communities and instability resulting from external shock in the world oil market, the manufacturing sector and other leading industries sector has suffered greatly in term of high cost of energy

The fluctuating nature of crude oil price in the international market has contributed significantly to the poor performance of the industrial sector in Nigeria. The industrial sector has failed to meet the expectation of the Nigerian society in terms of its contribution of GDP aid of providing gain full employment. Rather than being a leading growth sector, the industrial sector in Nigeria has remained a major consumer of foreign exchange with a high dependency on imported raw materials and capital good and making relatively minor contribution to foreign exchange earnings.

As can be seen in table 2.1 / see appendix the contribution so of the industrial sector to GDP remained stagnant at an average of about 8% during the 1980s and declined to an average of about 7.0% during the 1990 to 2000 period the country’s industrial GDP achievements persistently fell far short of what obtained in other developing countries at similar stages of development e.g Malaysia 26% Thailand 21.5%. this poor performance of the industrial sector suggests rather strongly that, the effect to promote the industrial sector through the various structural adjustment programme (SAP) and the recent commercialization and privatization programme have failed to yield desirable result. At the macro level the poor state of the economy for most of the 1980s and 1990s, several poor state of the Nigeria economy on the oil sector, the poor an haphazard implementation of the structural adjustment programme. Other factors includes huge shortage in foreign exchange earnings in the 1980s, and 1990. Read More »

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design and implementation of an online hotel reservation system

design and implementation of an online hotel reservation system. Case study of Winika Hotel Gboko


Most hospitality companies, even small independent units operate several businesses. A bed and breakfast operation will provide accommodation, a meal and perhaps a bar or licensed area for recreation. The larger the hospitality business the more difficult it is to define precisely the nature of the business.

Levitt (1999) suggested that the product led definitions of a business such as Hotel and catering’ are not helpful and may distract the strategic policy makers in the formulation of effective long term action plans.

He maintains that the definitions of the business should be in terms of its customers satisfying ability in which the hotel and catering operation may be described as serviced accommodation for short stay travelers. Emphasis in the example is place on the rooms the provision of food and beverages is subordinate to this main aim and may even be provided on concession arrangement by another company. Read More »

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parenting styles and self concept on emotional adjustment of nigeria secondary school students

parenting styles and self concept on emotional adjustment of nigeria secondary school students in ikpoba okha local government area of edo state

literature review

          The literature review of this work will be written under the following subheading:

  1. What is self-concept?
  2. The understanding of self-concept and self-esteem.
  3. How does parental style relate to self esteem and self concept?
  4. What is adolescent?
  5. Adolescent development
  6. The family and adolescent relationship
  7. Parenting styles
  8. family interaction and adolescent
  9. The parent-adolescent relationship.
  10. WHAT IS SELF-CONCEPT: Self-concept is an area that deal within personality theory. According to Doyle [2004], self-concept can be seen in the following ways:
    1. The Humanistic View of Self: Drawing on perspective of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers, this view of self-emphasize individual growth toward self-actualization.
    2. Pragmatic View of Self: In this self is a complex process of gaining self-awareness. We develop a concept of who we are through our interaction with others. This view is expressed in pragmatic philosophy in the work of William James and George Helbert, Mead and others.

Read More »

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attitude of parents towards the education of female students

the attitude of parents towards the education of female students in egor local government area of edo state

literature review

concept of female education

Adeyemi (2000), defines female education as the act of training the female folks, intellectually, morally and physically, so that they can fit into the present day society. Education is the most valuable possession and the best legacy any parent can give to his or her daughter. According to Omiegbe (1999), women education is that education given to female children at different stages and ways it is the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities to become effective participants of a given society group. Women education is the process that brings about well esteem, which helps in promoting participants that reflects in the society at large.

The World Book Dictionary (2003), sees women education as the development of skills, knowledge, ability and character by the female child through teaching, study or experience in a formal place of acquiring knowledge. Abulimen (2004), sees women education as the gradual acquisition of what is worthwhile from birth till death by the female children. Therefore, women education in a nutshell is the skills, knowledge and values acquired both informal and non formal ways by the female folks that enables them contribute meaningfully to the development of the society at large. Read More »

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peer group influence on the adolescent and their performance in schools

peer group influence on the adolescent and their performance in schools in egor local government area of edo state

literature review

This chapter is the final information from educators and authors written on how peer group association can influence the academic performance of secondary school students. These care literature reviewed include materials like textbooks, articles, from magazines, journal and researchers etc. according to Alvin, L. A. et al (1982) the term peer group implies that members of the group are on the same level, which means that ones employee (for example a house boys, maid) is usually not members of ones peer group, but two employees working for the same company may be members of the same of the same group people of the same age associate together and move through developmental stages with the same role expectation. The effect of age grades is strong in primary school because, most of the pupils know each other, or are either from the same ethnic or cultural background. In the primary school setting classroom heightens the effects of age grades because children are separated according to age, bringing a number of the same age together. Most of them remain together in the same group through the elementary school, forming and increasing cohesive bond with each passing year. Read More »

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political party development in Nigeria

political party development in Nigeria: an opinion survey of the three senatorial districts of edo state, nigeria (1999 – 2012)

 chapter three

research methodology

The methodology has to do with the systematic collection and analysis of data in research. It also has to do with the research design, population of study, sample size/sampling methods or techniques, sources of data, instruments of data collection as well as techniques of data analysis.

Below are the components of the methodology of this study.


The descriptive survey design was used in this study. According to Mark Brown (1985), the descriptive survey research tries to identify variables that exist in a given situation and tries to describe the relationship among the variables, as well as identify the factors that exist among such variables.


The 2006 census put the population of Nigeria at over one hundred and fifty million out of which Edo State figures stood at three million, two hundred and thirty-three thousand, three hundred and sixty-six (3,233,366). Therefore, in this study, the population of Edo State was used in the investigation. However, it comprised of the three senatorial districts of Edo State. Read More »

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privatization of public enterprises and its implication on economic policy and development

privatization of public enterprises and its implication on economic policy and development of cross river state.

 Review of Related Literature and Theoretical and Theoretical Background


This chapter deals with the scholarly view of some authors on privatization with theoretical background.

Review of relevant literature

Since the creation of Cross River State, there have been a lot of works on issue covering the privatization of public enterprises and its implication of economic policy and development in Cross River State.

Anyanwu (1999) succinctly explained that despite the greater expectation that spurred the establishment of public enterprises and the huge investment and subvention pumped to float and maintain them, they have remained a colossal drain on the nations hard earned resources with little positive impact on the socio-economic life of the country. The fourth National Development Plan (1975-1980) state that the actual performance of the public enterprises in Nigeria leaves much to be desired. It is clear that many of them are not responding to the changing and dynamics economy. Some do not posses the tool for translating into reality, the hope of successful commercial options the lead and quality of personnel are mediocre and reflect the worst traditions and rigidities of the civil service. Read More »

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problem and prospects of small scale fish farmers

 problem and prospects of small scale fish farmers in edo state: a case study of ovia north east local government area of edo state

 literature review


Fish farming otherwise known as fish culture is a branch of aquaculture which involves the domestication and rearing of different types of fish. This practice allows feeding, breeding, growing and harvesting of fish in a well planned  manner. A wide range of fish farming does exist including growing of fish in earthen ponds, concrete tanks, cages, pens, or run-ways (Swift, 1993). Several methods of successful production of fish is practiced but the popular and simple technique is the earthen pond, which is the basic unit of fish farming worldwide and it is dependent on natural production of fish feed (Plumb,1999).

Previous study had confirmed that land, water, labour and capital are the most essential resources in that order (Kudi et al., 2008). In spite of availability of these resources, fish farmers identified lack of finance, lack of good market, pest and diseases as other important issues in fish production (Agbebi et al., 2006; Ndu, 2006). Another problem faced by fish farmers is the processing and preservation needs of fish. Davies and Davies, 2009 reported different methods of preservation such as drying, smoking, chilling and brining, but the most prominent method of fish preservation in Nigeria is smoke-drying (Akinola et al., 2006). According to Momoh (2009), several Nigerian government parastatals planned to collaborate to establish industries for canning and further Read More »

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problems of classroom management and control in secondary school

problems of classroom management and control in secondary school

literature review

 classroom management and control is one of the major element of teaching, learning process which are geared to wards attainment of specific goals. Their goals can only be accomplished, if the teacher tries to put in place appropriate methods or strategies and good manage skill. The expected results from effective lesson note or lesson plan and controls of pupils what may be expected from this kind of teaching and learning experience is only disorder and indiscipline in class.

For us to adequately find meaning to the concept come to mind. The first is class room and second management.

The classroom could be seen as a school environment which accommodates teachers, pupils, instructional materials and infrastructure facilities which enable teaching learning experience or problems to take place.

Abuya (2003) cited from Dalton (2002) see management as the organization through systematic coordinated and cooperative human efforts. Management involves the utilization available resources in the accomplishment of the state objective of an organization to make resource productive in order that the organization may achieve its goals.

Kenzeuish (2004) it involves the process or ability to direct and control the action of other four achievement of common goals. Read More »

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